Wednesday, May 5, 2021

The amount of oxygen consumed by the lung

 


Background: The amount of oxygen consumed by the lung itself is difficult to measure because it is included in whole-body gas exchange. It may be increased markedly under pathological conditions such as lung infection or adult respiratory distress syndrome. To estimate normal oxygen consumption of the human lung as a basis for further studies, respiratory gas analysis during total cardiopulmonary bypass may be a simple approach because the pulmonary circulation is separated from systemic blood flow during this period.

Methods: Lung oxygen consumption was determined in 16 patients undergoing cardiac surgery. During total cardiopulmonary bypass, their lungs were ventilated with low minute volumes (tidal volume, 150 ml; rate, 6 min-1; inspiratory oxygen fraction, 0.5; positive end-expiratory pressure, 3 mmHg). All expiratory gas was collected and analyzed by indirect calorimetry. As a reference value also, the whole-body oxygen consumption of these patients was determined before total cardiopulmonary bypass. In a pilot study of eight additional patients (same ventilatory pattern), the contribution of systemic (bronchial) blood flow to pulmonary gas exchange during cardiopulmonary bypass was assessed. For this purpose, the amount of enflurane diffusing from the systemic blood into the bronchial system was measured.

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Results: The human lung consumes about 5-6 ml oxygen per minute at an esophageal temperature of 28 degrees C. Pre by pass whole-body oxygen consumption measured at nearly normothermic conditions was 198 +/- 28 ml/min. Mean lung and whole-body respiratory quotients were similar (0.84 and 0.77, respectively). Extrapolating lung oxygen consumption to 36 degrees C suggests that the lung consumes about 11 ml/min or about 5% of total body oxygen consumption. Because the amount of enflurane diffused from the systemic circulation into the bronchial system during cardiopulmonary bypass was less than 0.1%, the contribution of bronchial blood flow to lung gas exchange can be assumed to be negligible.

Conclusions: The lung consumes about 5% of whole-body oxygen uptake.

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How to Get Taller: Are There Real Ways to Increase Your Height?

 


How to Get Taller: Are There Real Ways to Increase Your Height?

As a child and during puberty, it’s common to be curious about what your adult height will be and how to grow taller

Throughout history (and even now), physicians, companies, and inventors have offered treatments that were supposedly able to increase a person’s height. So are there any methods that can actually help you increase your height? Read this article to find out.

How to grow taller

There are many factors that determine adult height. Many people believe that human height is determined only by genetics, but that’s not entirely true. Genetics is the main factor that determines how tall someone will be once they’re done growing, but there are others.

Environmental and lifestyle factors also come into play during childhood and adolescence. Nutrition, for example, plays a big role in determining height. In fact, scientists have theorized that improved nutrition may be the main reason why the average human height has significantly increased over the last century. That’s why it’s so important to make sure children are well-fed, from the time they’re breastfeeding until they’re fully grown.

Natural ways to increase your height: Do they work?

There are many sources that claim to have figured out how you can grow taller fast. Some say that stretching and performing certain exercises are the keys to getting taller. Others post climbing and hanging exercises that are supposed to make you taller or advise swimming or using an inversion table for the same purpose.

However, no scientific evidence exists to support these methods. At most, some of these activities could cause the intervertebral discs to decompress, temporarily restoring natural height a tiny bit. This, coupled with stretching the muscles during these exercises, could make someone believe that they’re really getting taller. But the truth is that there’s no magic way to get taller fast.

Medical procedures for growth stimulation

A surgical procedure called distraction osteogenesis can make people grow taller even during adulthood. This procedure was originally intended to treat dwarfism or uneven legs.

During the procedure, health care providers surgically break the bones in the person’s legs. Afterward, the ends of the broken bones are separated. This is achieved through the use of a device called an Ilizarov apparatus, which stabilizes the leg. Each day, the apparatus is opened so that the separation between the bones grows by approximately one millimeter.

As the device maintains the separation, a callus forms between the two parts of the bone. This callus is then replaced by collagen and, eventually, by bone tissue. The process requires at least a month of treatment for each centimeter of growth, and it usually only results in a couple of inches in increased height.

This procedure is traumatic and painful; once the bones have healed, the person essentially has to learn how to walk again. This surgery also carries a high risk of complications including infections, leg axis deviation, joint disease, and psychological problems.

“This *Secret Combination* of Specific Height Gain Methods GUARANTEE You Will Be At Least

2-4 Inches Taller In 8 Weeks!”

 

Does sleeping help you grow?

It is widely believed that children need lots of sleep to reach their full height. Sleep apnea has been found to have a negative effect on children’s growth and development. So if you want to grow to your full potential, it’s probably a good idea to get plenty of sleep every night.

The bottom line is that there’s not much you can do to increase your height once you’ve reached adulthood. However, if you’d like to appear a little taller, consider the following tips:

     Wear comfortable heels or inserts inside your shoes.

     Improve your posture. Having great posture can make you look taller and feel more confident.

     Try styling tricks. Wearing prints like vertical stripes or creating long lines with your clothes can make you look more elongated.

     Some exercises, such as yoga or pilates, can strengthen your core and improve your posture.

If you’re a parent and you’d like to make sure that your kids reach their full growth potential, there are some things you can do. Ensuring proper nutrition is the most important step. From the moment your child is born, you can improve their nutritional intake by making sure they get enough nutrition. Breastfeeding is a great way to do that. That’s why learning tips such as

Once they’re older, maintaining a balanced diet and making sure they practice age-appropriate exercise will help ensure that they reach their physical potential. Make sure that your kids get enough sleep so that their bodies get enough rest and they keep their energy up.

At the end of the day, height is only a single physical feature out of the many characteristics that make up a person’s appearance. Even though some people would love to know how to get taller, beauty can be found at any height.

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HEALTHY DIET

 

Healthy diet

Key facts

     A healthy diet helps to protect against malnutrition in all its forms, as well as noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), including such as diabetes, heart disease, stroke, and cancer.

     Unhealthy diet and lack of physical activity is leading global risks to health.

     Healthy dietary practices start early in life – breastfeeding fosters healthy growth and improves cognitive development, and may have long term health benefits such as reducing the risk of becoming overweight or obese and developing NCDs later in life.

     Energy intake (calories) should be in balance with energy expenditure. To avoid unhealthily weight gain, total fat should not exceed 30% of total energy intake. Intake of saturated fats should be less than 10% of total energy intake, and intake of trans-fats less than 1% of total energy intake, with a shift in fat consumption away from saturated fats and trans-fats to unsaturated fats, and towards the goal of eliminating industrially-produced trans-fats.

     Limiting intake of free sugars to less than 10% of total energy intake is part of a healthy diet. A further reduction to less than 5% of total energy intake is suggested for additional health benefits.

     Keeping salt intake to less than 5 g per day (equivalent to sodium intake of less than 2 g per day) helps to prevent hypertension and reduces the risk of heart disease and stroke in the adult population.

     WHO Member States have agreed to reduce the global population’s intake of salt by 30% by 2025; they have also agreed to halt the rise in diabetes and obesity in adults and adolescents as well as in childhood overweight by 2025.

Overview

Consuming a healthy diet throughout the life-course helps to prevent malnutrition in all its forms as well as a range of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) and conditions. However, increased production of processed foods, rapid urbanization, and changing lifestyles have led to a shift in dietary patterns. People are now consuming more foods high in energy, fats, free sugars, and salt/sodium, and many people do not eat enough fruit, vegetables, and other dietary fiber such as whole grains.

The exact make-up of a diversified, balanced and a healthy diet will vary depending on individual characteristics (e.g. age, gender, lifestyle and degree of physical activity), cultural context, locally available foods and dietary customs. However, the basic principles of what constitutes a healthy diet remain the same.

For adults

A healthy diet includes the following:

     Fruit, vegetables, legumes (e.g. lentils and beans), nuts, and whole grains (e.g. unprocessed maize, millet, oats, wheat and brown rice).

     At least 400 g (i.e. five portions) of fruit and vegetables per day, excluding potatoes, sweet potatoes, cassava, and other starchy roots.

     Less than 10% of total energy intake from free sugars, which is equivalent to 50 g (or about 12 level teaspoons) for a person of healthy body weight consuming about 2000 calories per day, but ideally is less than 5% of total energy intake for additional health benefits. Free sugars are all sugars added to foods or drinks by the manufacturer, cook, or consumer, as well as sugars naturally present in honey, syrups, fruit juices and fruit juice concentrates.

     Less than 30% of total energy intake from fats. Unsaturated fats (found in fish, avocado and nuts, and in sunflower, soybean, canola, and olive oils) are preferable to saturated fats (found in fatty meat, butter, palm, and coconut oil, cream, cheese, ghee, and lard) and trans-fats of all kinds, including both industrially-produced trans-fats (found in baked and fried foods, and pre-packaged snacks and foods, such as frozen pizza, pies, cookies, biscuits, wafers, and cooking oils and spreads) and ruminant trans-fats (found in meat and dairy foods from ruminant animals, such as cows, sheep, goats, and camels). It is suggested that the intake of saturated fats be reduced to less than 10% of total energy intake and trans-fats to less than 1% of total energy intake. In particular, industrially-produced trans-fats are not part of a healthy diet and should be avoided.

     Less than 5  g of salt (equivalent to about one teaspoon) per day (8).  Salt should be iodized.

For infants and young children

In the first 2 years of a child’s life, optimal nutrition fosters healthy growth and improves cognitive development. It also reduces the risk of becoming overweight or obese and developing NCDs later in life.

Advice on a healthy diet for infants and children are similar to adults, but the following elements are also important:

     Infants should be breastfed exclusively during the first 6 months of life.

     Infants should be breastfed continuously until 2 years of age and beyond.

     From 6 months of age, breast milk should be complemented with a variety of adequate, safe, and nutrient-dense foods. Salt and sugars should not be added to complementary foods.

This is a message for every busy woman who needs to lose weight and gain confidence but can't stick to any program due to the heavy demands of life.


Practical advice on maintaining a healthy diet

Fruit and vegetables

Eating at least 400 g, or five portions, of fruit and vegetables per day reduce the risk of NCDs (2) and help to ensure an adequate daily intake of dietary fiber.

Fruit and vegetable intake can be improved by:

     always including vegetables in meals;

     eating fresh fruit and raw vegetables as snacks;

     eating fresh fruit and vegetables that are in season; and

     eating a variety of fruit and vegetables.

Fats

Reducing the amount of total fat intake to less than 30% of total energy intake helps to prevent unhealthy weight gain in the adult population. Also, the risk of developing NCDs is lowered by:

     reducing saturated fats to less than 10% of total energy intake;

     reducing trans-fats to less than 1% of total energy intake; and

     replacing both saturated fats and trans-fats with unsaturated fats  – in particular, with polyunsaturated fats.

Fat intake, especially saturated fat and industrially-produced trans-fat intake can be reduced by:

     steaming or boiling instead of frying when cooking;

     replacing butter, lard, and ghee with oils rich in polyunsaturated fats, such as soybean, canola (rapeseed), corn, safflower and sunflower oils;

     eating reduced-fat dairy foods and lean meats, or trimming visible fat from meat; and

     limiting the consumption of baked and fried foods, and pre-packaged snacks and foods (e.g. doughnuts, cakes, pies, cookies, biscuits and wafers) that contain industrially-produced trans-fats.

Salt, sodium and potassium

Most people consume too much sodium through salt (corresponding to consuming an average of 9–12 g of salt per day) and not enough potassium (less than 3.5 g). High sodium intake and insufficient potassium intake contributes to high blood pressure, which in turn increases the risk of heart disease and stroke.

Reducing salt intake to the recommended level of less than 5 g per day could prevent 1.7 million deaths each year.

People are often unaware of the amount of salt they consume. In many countries, most salt comes from processed foods (e.g. ready meals; processed meats such as bacon, ham, and salami; cheese; and salty snacks) or from foods consumed frequently in large amounts (e.g. bread). Salt is also added to foods during cooking (e.g. bouillon, stock cubes, soy sauce, and fish sauce) or at the point of consumption (e.g. table salt).

Salt intake can be reduced by:

     limiting the amount of salt and high-sodium condiments (e.g. soy sauce, fish sauce, and bouillon) when cooking and preparing foods;

     not having salt or high-sodium sauces on the table;

     limiting the consumption of salty snacks; and

     choosing products with lower sodium content.

Some food manufacturers are reformulating recipes to reduce the sodium content of their products, and people should be encouraged to check nutrition labels to see how much sodium is in a product before purchasing or consuming it.

Potassium can mitigate the negative effects of elevated sodium consumption on blood pressure. Intake of potassium can be increased by consuming fresh fruit and vegetables.

Sugars

In both adults and children, the intake of free sugars should be reduced to less than 10% of total energy intake.  A reduction to less than 5% of total energy intake would provide additional health benefits.

Consuming free sugars increases the risk of dental caries (tooth decay). Excess calories from foods and drinks high in free sugars also contribute to unhealthy weight gain, which can lead to overweight and obesity. Recent evidence also shows that free sugars influence blood pressure and serum lipids, and suggests that a reduction in free sugars intake reduces risk factors for cardiovascular diseases .

Sugars intake can be reduced by:

     limiting the consumption of foods and drinks containing high amounts of sugars, such as sugary snacks, candies and sugar-sweetened beverages (i.e. all types of beverages containing free sugars – these include carbonated or non‐carbonated soft drinks, fruit or vegetable juices and drinks, liquid and powder concentrates, flavored water, energy and sports drinks, ready‐to‐drink tea, ready‐to‐drink coffee, and flavored milk drinks); and

     Eating fresh fruit and raw vegetables as snacks instead of sugary snacks.

How to promote healthy diets

Diet evolves over time, being influenced by many social and economic factors that interact in a complex manner to shape individual dietary patterns. These factors include income, food prices (which will affect the availability and affordability of healthy foods), individual preferences and beliefs, cultural traditions, and geographical and environmental aspects (including climate change). Therefore, promoting a healthy food environment – including food systems that promote a diversified, balanced and healthy diet – requires the involvement of multiple sectors and stakeholders, including government, and the public and private sectors.

Governments have a central role in creating a healthy food environment that enables people to adopt and maintain healthy dietary practices. Effective actions by policy-makers to create a healthy food environment include the following:

     Creating coherence in national policies and investment plans – including trade, food, and agricultural policies – to promote a healthy diet and protect public health through:



     increasing incentives for producers and retailers to grow, use, and sell fresh fruit and vegetables;

     reducing incentives for the food industry to continue or increase production of processed foods containing high levels of saturated fats, trans-fats, free sugars and salt/sodium;

     encouraging reformulation of food products to reduce the contents of saturated fats, trans-fats, free sugars and salt/sodium, with the goal of eliminating industrially-produced trans-fats;

     implementing the WHO recommendations on the marketing of foods and non-alcoholic beverages to children;

     establishing standards to foster healthy dietary practices through ensuring the availability of healthy, nutritious, safe and affordable foods in pre-schools, schools, other public institutions and the workplace;

     exploring regulatory and voluntary instruments (e.g. marketing regulations and nutrition labeling policies), and economic incentives or disincentives (e.g. taxation and subsidies) to promote a healthy diet; and

     Encouraging transnational, national, and local food services and catering outlets to improve the nutritional quality of their foods – ensuring the availability and affordability of healthy choices – and review portion sizes and pricing.

     Encouraging consumer demand for healthy foods and meals through:



     promoting consumer awareness of a healthy diet;

     developing school policies and programs that encourage children to adopt and maintain a healthy diet;

     educating children, adolescents and adults about nutrition and healthy dietary practices;

     encouraging culinary skills, including in children through schools;

     supporting point-of-sale information, including through nutrition labeling that ensures accurate, standardized and comprehensible information on nutrient contents in foods (in line with the Codex Alimentarius Commission guidelines), with the addition of front-of-pack labeling to facilitate consumer understanding; and

     providing nutrition and dietary counseling at primary health-care facilities.

     Promoting appropriate infant and young child feeding practices through:

     implementing the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes and subsequent relevant World Health Assembly resolutions;

     implementing policies and practices to promote protection of working mothers; and

     Promoting, protecting, and supporting breastfeeding in health services and the community, including through the Baby-friendly Hospital Initiative.

This is a message for every busy woman who needs to lose weight and gain confidence but can't stick to any program due to the heavy demands of life.


WHO response

The “WHO Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health”  was adopted in 2004 by the Health Assembly. The strategy called on governments, WHO, international partners, the private sector, and civil society to take action at global, regional, and local levels to support healthy diets and physical activity.

In 2010, the Health Assembly endorsed a set of recommendations on the marketing of foods and non-alcoholic beverages to children. These recommendations guide countries in designing new policies and improving existing ones to reduce the impact on children of the marketing of foods and non-alcoholic beverages to children. WHO has also developed region-specific tools (such as regional nutrient profile models) that countries can use to implement marketing recommendations.

In 2012, the Health Assembly adopted a “Comprehensive Implementation Plan on Maternal, Infant and Young Child Nutrition” and six global nutrition targets to be achieved by 2025, including the reduction of stunting, wasting, and overweight in children, the improvement of breastfeeding, and the reduction of anemia and low birth weight.

In 2013, the Health Assembly agreed to nine global voluntary targets for the prevention and control of NCDs. These targets include a halt to the rise in diabetes and obesity and a 30% relative reduction in the intake of salt by 2025. The “Global Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases 2013–2020”  provides guidance and policy options for the Member States, WHO, and other United Nations agencies to achieve the targets.

With many countries now seeing a rapid rise in obesity among infants and children, in May 2014 WHO set up the Commission on Ending Childhood Obesity. In 2016, the Commission proposed a set of recommendations to successfully tackle childhood and adolescent obesity in different contexts around the world.

In November 2014, WHO organized, jointly with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the Second International Conference on Nutrition (ICN2). ICN2 adopted the Rome Declaration on Nutrition, and the Framework for Action  which recommends a set of policy options and strategies to promote diversified, safe and healthy diets at all stages of life. WHO is helping countries to implement the commitments made at ICN2.

In May 2018, the Health Assembly approved the 13th General Programme of Work (GPW13), which will guide the work of WHO in 2019–2023. Reduction of salt/sodium intake and elimination of industrially-produced trans-fats from the food supply are identified in GPW13 as part of WHO’s priority actions to achieve the aims of ensuring healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages. To support Member States in taking necessary actions to eliminate industrially-produced trans-fats, WHO has developed a roadmap for countries to help accelerate actions.

This is a message for every busy woman who needs to lose weight and gain confidence but can't stick to any program due to the heavy demands of life.

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