Monday, November 29, 2021

Rheumatoid Arthritis

Arthritis is an acute inflammatory disorder that can affect only your joints. 

In certain individuals, this condition can harm different body frameworks, including the skin, eyes, lungs, heart, and veins. 

Unlike osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis affects the lining of your joints, causing painful inflammation that can eventually lead to bone loss and damage to the joints.

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The inflammation associated with arthritis can also damage other parts of the body. Although new drugs have dramatically improved treatment options, severe arthritis may still cause physical disability.

Symptoms of Rheumatoid Arthritis

Signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis may include:

tender, warm, swollen joints

Joint stiffness usually worsens in the morning and after inactivity

Fatigue, fever, and weight loss

Early arthritis first affects your small joints – specifically the joints that connect your hands and toes to your feet.

As the disease progresses, symptoms spread to the wrists, knees, ankles, elbows, buttocks, and shoulders. In most cases, symptoms occur in similar joints on both sides of your body.

About 40 percent of people with arthritis also experience signs and symptoms associated with the joints. Arthritis can affect many non-joint structures, including:

Leather

Eyes

respiratory system

Heart

Kidney

salivary glands

nervous tissue

bone marrow

blood vessels

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Signs and symptoms of arthritis can vary in severity and may come and go. Periods of increased disease activity, called flare-ups, are periodically accompanied by periods of relative remission—when inflammation and pain subside or disappear. Over time, arthritis can get worse and deviate from the joints.

Rheumatoid arthritis

Gout occurs when your immune system attacks the synovial membrane layer that surrounds your joints.

Subsequently, irritation thickens the synovium, which in the long run obliterates the ligament and bone in the joint.

The nerves and ligaments that hold the joints together are weak and stretched. Gradually, the joint loses its shape and alignment.

Doctors do not know who started the process, although there may be genetic factors. Although your genes don't actually cause arthritis, they can put you at greater risk for environmental factors — such as infections caused by certain viruses and bacteria — that can lead to disease.

Factors that increase the risk of gout are:

Era. Gout can occur at any age, but it usually begins between the ages of 40 and 60.

family history. If a family member has arthritis, you may be at higher risk for the disease.

Smoking increases your risk of developing arthritis, especially if you have a genetic predisposition to the disease. Smoking also seems to be associated with more serious diseases.

environmental hazards. Although uncertain and underestimated, certain exposures, such as asbestos or silica, may increase the risk of gout. Crisis laborers presented to tidy after the breakdown of the World Trade Center are at an expanded danger of immune system illnesses like joint inflammation.

Obesity People who are overweight or obese have a slightly higher risk of developing gout, especially in women 55 years of age or younger who have been diagnosed with the disease.

Rheumatic complications

Rheumatoid arthritis increases the risk of developing gout by:

Osteoporosis. Rheumatoid arthritis, along with some of the drugs used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, can increase your risk of osteoporosis — a condition that weakens your bones and puts them at risk of fracture.

Rheumatoid nodules. These permanent bumpers of tissue usually form around an angle-like pressure point. However, these nodules can form anywhere on the body, including the lungs.

Dry eyes and mouth. People with arthritis are more likely to develop Sjogren's Syndrome, a disorder that reduces moisture in your eyes and mouth.

Infection. Many drugs used to treat the disease and arthritis can weaken the immune system, increasing the risk of infection.

unusual body. People with gout also have higher levels of fat and fat than people with a normal body mass index (BMI).

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carpal tunnel syndrome. If arthritis affects your wrists, the inflammation can compress the nerves in your hands and fingers.

Cardiovascular problems. Rheumatoid arthritis can increase your risk of hardening and clogging of your arteries, as well as inflammation of the sac around your heart.

lung disease. People with arthritis are more prone to inflammation and scarring of the lung tissue, which can make breathing difficult.

Lymphoma Rheumatoid joint pain expands the danger of lymphoma, a gathering of blood diseases that create in the lymphatic framework. conclusion Rheumatoid joint pain can be hard to analyze in its beginning phases in light of the fact that the early signs and side effects are like those of numerous different infections. There is no single blood test or physical test to confirm the diagnosis.

During the actual test, your primary care physician will check for enlarging, redness, and warmth in your joints. It can test your reflexes and muscle strength.

Blood test

Individuals with joint pain regularly have raised erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, or sed rate) or C-receptive protein (CRP), which can demonstrate the presence of provocative cycles in the body. 

Imaging test

Your doctor may recommend X-rays from time to time to monitor the progression of arthritis in your joints. X-ray and ultrasound tests can assist your primary care physician with deciding the seriousness of the sickness in your body.

Treatment

There is no cure for rheumatoid arthritis. But recent research has shown that treatment with potent anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) is less likely to relieve symptoms.

Medicines

The type of medicine your doctor prescribes will depend on the severity of your symptoms and your arthritis.

NSAID. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can reduce pain and reduce inflammation. Stronger NSAIDs are available by prescription. Side effects may include ringing in your ears, upset stomach, heart problems, and liver and kidney damage.

Steroids Corticosteroid medications, such as prednisone, reduce swelling and pain and reduce joint damage. Side effects may include bone loss, weight gain, and diabetes. Doctors often prescribe corticosteroids to gradually reduce the drug to less severe symptoms.

Anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs). These drugs can reduce the development of rheumatoid arthritis and prevent permanent damage to joints and other tissues. Common DMRDs include methotrexate (Trexal, Otrexap, Rasuvo), leflunomide (Arava), hydroxychloroquine (Plaquinil), and sulfasalazine (Azulfide).

Side effects can vary but may include liver damage, compression of the bone marrow, and serious lung infections.

biological component. Also known as biological response modifiers, this new range of DMARDs includes abatacept (Orencia), adalimumab (Humira), akinera (Kineret), certolizumab (Cimzia), in alief (Ananarp). rituximab Retoxin), tocilizumab (Actemara) and tofacitinib (Gelzenz).

These drugs can target certain parts of the immune system, causing inflammation that can damage joints and tissues. Such drugs also increase the risk of infection.

Organic DMRDs are most effective when combined with non-organic DMARDs such as methotrexate.

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