Friday, November 19, 2021

WHAT IS HIV/AIDS?

By weakening your immune system, HIV interferes with your body's ability to fight disease.

HIV is a sexually transmitted infection. It can be spread through blood contact from an infected person or from mother to child during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding. Without medication, it can take years for your immune system to weaken until you become infected with HIV.

There is no solution for HIV/AIDS, yet there are meds that can significantly lethargic the movement of the infection. These drugs have reduced AIDS-related deaths in many developed countries. But HIV continues to affect Africa, Haiti, and parts of Asia.

Symptoms of HIV/AIDS

Manifestations of HIV and AIDS fluctuate as indicated by the phase of the disease. 

Primary infection (acute HIV)

Most people infected with HIV develop a flu-like illness within a month or two of the virus entering the body. This condition, known as primary or acute HIV infection, can last for weeks. Possible signs and symptoms include:

Warmth

Headache

muscle aches and joint pain

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acne

Sore throat

Swollen lymph glands, mainly on the neck

However, symptoms of primary HIV virus can be mild to insignificant, as the viral load in the bloodstream is particularly high at this time. As a result, the infection spreads more efficiently during primary infection than during later stages of HIV infection.

Clinical late infection (acute HIV)

In some people, there is persistent swelling of the lymph nodes during clinical latent HIV. Otherwise, there are no special signs and symptoms. notwithstanding, HIV stays in the body and in tainted white platelets. If you are not receiving antiretroviral therapy, clinical latent infection usually lasts for 10 years. In people taking antiretroviral drugs, this phase can last for decades. But some people get serious diseases very quickly

Early symptoms of HIV infection

As the infection proceeds to increase and obliterate resistant cells, you might foster a gentle disease or foster extreme signs and indications, for example, 

Warmth Tiredness 

Swollen lymph hubs - ​regularly one of the principal indications of HIV contamination 

Diarrhea

weight loss

oral yeast infection (yeast)

shingles (herpes zoster)

AIDS progression

If you don't get any treatment for your HIV infection, the disease will turn into AIDS in about 10 years. By the time AIDS develops, your immune system has been severely damaged, giving you opportunistic infections – diseases that do not normally affect a person with a healthy immune system.

Signs and side effects of a portion of these diseases might include: 

Night sweats

Frequent fever

Acute diarrhea

Permanent white spots or unusual blisters on your tongue or mouth

Frequent, unexplained fatigue

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Weight loss

Acne or pimples on the skin

Due to HIV/AIDS

HIV is a viral infection that is spread through sexual contact, blood, or mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding.

How does HIV become AIDS?

HIV destroys CD4 cells – a special type of white blood cell that plays an important role in helping your body fight disease. Your immune system weakens because too many CD4 cells die. You can be infected with HIV for many years before getting AIDS. People with HIV have AIDS when their CD4 count drops below 200 or when they experience the complications that define AIDS.

How is HIV spread

To become tainted with HIV, contaminated blood, semen or vaginal release should enter your body. 

normal contact with a person with HIV or AIDS -- hugging, kissing, dancing, or shaking hands -- can prevent you from getting infected. HIV isn't spread through the air, water, or bug nibbles. You can become tainted with HIV in more than one way, including: 

by sexual intercourse, You can become infected if you have vaginal, anal, or oral sex with an infected partner who has blood, semen, or vaginal discharge.  The infection can enter your body through mouth bruises or little tears that occasionally create in the butt or vagina during sexual activity. 

By blood transfusion In some cases, the virus can be transmitted through blood transfusion. US hospitals and blood banks are now testing the blood supply for HIV antibodies, so the risk is very low.

By dividing the needles. HIV can be communicated through needles and needles polluted with tainted blood. Sharing intravenous medication material puts you in danger for HIV and other irresistible sicknesses, like hepatitis. 

During pregnancy or during childbirth or while breastfeeding. Infected mothers can infect their babies. But HIV can be spread during pregnancy. By treating HIV infection, mothers significantly reduce the risk to their babies.

To risk

When HIV/AIDS first emerged in the United States, it primarily affected men who had sex with men. However, it has now become clear that HIV is also transmitted through the opposite sex. Anyone of any age, race, sex, or sexual orientation can become infected, but you are most at risk of HIV/AIDS if you:

Have unprotected sex. Unprotected sex means having sex without using a new latex or polyurethane condom each time. Anal sex is more dangerous than vaginal intercourse. The risk increases if you have more than one sexual partner.

Any other STI Many sexually transmitted infections (STIs) cause open blisters on your genitals. These blisters act as a gateway for HIV to enter your body.

Use vascular drugs. People who use intravenous drugs usually share needles and syringes. This puts them in contact with droplets of other people's blood.

He is an uncircumcised man. Studies show that lack of circumcision increases the risk of transgender sex being protected against HIV.

Complications

HIV contamination debilitates your insusceptible framework, which expands your odds of getting numerous diseases and a few kinds of malignant growth.

Common Infections for HIV/AIDS

TB Resource Storm In poor countries, TB is the most common opportunistic infection associated with HIV and the leading cause of death among people living with AIDS.

Cytomegalo virus. The common herpes virus is spread through body fluids such as saliva, blood, urine, semen, and breast milk. A healthy immune system neutralizes viruses and keeps your body healthy. When your immune system is weakened, the virus reappears - damaging your eyes, digestive system, lungs, or other organs.

Candidiasis. Candidiasis is a common HIV-related infection. It causes swelling and a thick white coating on the mucous membranes of your mouth, tongue, or vagina.

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Cryptococcal meningitis. Inflammation of the lining of the brain is the swelling of the membrane and fluid around the brain and spinal cord (meninges). Cryptococcal meningitis is a common central nervous system infection associated with HIV, which is caused by fungi found in soil.

Toxoplasmosis. It is most likely caused by a deadly infection called Toxoplasma gondii, a parasite that is mainly spread by cats. Infected cats ingest the parasites in their feces and then the parasites can spread to other animals and humans.

Cryptosporidiosis. The infection is usually caused by intestinal parasites found in animals. You become infected with cryptosporidiosis when you consume contaminated food or water. The parasite grows in your intestine and bile ducts, causing severe, severe diarrhea in people with AIDS.

Common Cancers for HIV/AIDS

Kaposi's sarcoma. Tumors on the walls of blood vessels, this cancer are rare in HIV-infected people, but more common in HIV-positive people. Kaposi's sarcoma usually appears as pink, red, or purple lesions on the skin and face. In people with darker skin, the lesions may appear dark brown or black in color. Kaposi's sarcoma can also affect the digestive system and internal organs, including the lungs.

This type of cancer develops in your white blood cells and usually first appears in your lymph nodes. The most common initial symptom is painless swelling of the lymph nodes in your neck, armpit, or lumbar region.

Other complications

Westing syndrome. Aggressive treatments have reduced the number of cases of Westing syndrome, but it still affects many people with AIDS. It is defined as a loss of at least 10 percent of body weight, often with diarrhea, severe weakness, and fever.

Neurological complications. Although AIDS does not infect neurons, it can cause neurological symptoms such as confusion, amnesia, depression, anxiety, and difficulty walking. One of the most common neurological complications is the AIDS dementia complex, which causes behavioral changes and impaired mental function.

Kidney disease. HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) is inflammation of the tiny filters in your kidneys that filter excess fluid and waste out of your bloodstream and pass them into your urine. Because of their genetic predisposition, black people are at a higher risk of getting HIVAN. In people diagnosed with HIV, antiretroviral therapy should be initiated regardless of CD4 count.

Tests and diagnosis

HIV is usually detected by testing your blood or saliva for antibodies to the virus. Lamentably, it sets aside effort for your body to foster these antibodies - as a rule as long as 12 weeks. A new type of test that tests for the HIV antigen, a protein produced by the virus shortly after an infection, may confirm the diagnosis soon after infection. Early diagnosis may ask people to take extra precautions to prevent spreading the virus to others.

Home test

To perform the test, you draw fluid from your upper and lower gums. If the test is positive, you will need to confirm the diagnosis with your doctor and discuss your treatment options. If the test is negative, it should be repeated every three months to confirm the results.

Trials for Taylor-Made Remedies

If you have been diagnosed with HIV/AIDS, various tests can help your doctor determine what stage you are in. These tests include:

CD4 Number CD4 cells are a type of white blood cell that is specifically targeted and destroyed by HIV. Even if you don't have any symptoms, when your CD4 count drops below 200, HIV infection progresses to AIDS.

viral load. This test estimates the measure of infection in your blood. Studies have shown that people with high viral loads generally perform worse than those with low viral loads.

drug resistance. This blood test will determine whether your HIV strain is resistant to certain anti-HIV drugs.

Test for complications

Your doctor may also order laboratory tests to diagnose other infections or complications, including:

Tea.

Hepatitis

toxoplasmosis

sexually transmitted infections

liver or kidney damage

urinary tract infections

Treatment and medicine

There is no cure for HIV/AIDS, but a combination of several drugs may be used to control the virus. Each class of anti-HIV drugs protects against the virus in different ways. To prevent the spread of HIV, it is best to mix at least three of the two types of anti-HIV drugs. Categories of anti-HIV drugs include:

Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs). NNRTIs inactivate a protein needed by HIV to make its copies. Examples include efavirenz (Sustiva), etravirine (Intelligence), and nevirapine (Viramune).

Nucleoside or nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs). NRTIs are defective versions of these building blocks that HIV needs to make its own copy of. Examples include abacavir (Xiagen), and the combination drugs emtricitabine-tenofovir (Truvada), and lamivudine-zidovudine (Combivir).

Protease inhibitors (PIs). PIs inactivate the protein, another protein that HIV wants to replicate itself. Examples include atazanavir (Riyataz), darunavir (Prezista), fosamprenavir (Lexiva), and indinavir (Crixivan).

Infiltration or fusion inhibitors. These drugs block HIV from entering CD4 cells. Examples include enfuvirtide (Fuzeon) and maraviroc (Selzentry).

Integrated Blocker. These drugs work by inactivating integration, a protein that HIV uses to insert genetic material into CD4 cells. Examples include raltegravir (Isentas), elvitegravir (Vitekta), and raltegravir (TVK).

When to start treatment

Everyone with HIV should be given antiviral drugs, regardless of CD4 count. HIV therapy is especially important for the following conditions:

You have severe symptoms.

You have an opportunistic infection.


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