Sunday, November 21, 2021

WHAT IS TUBERCULOSIS?

Tuberculosis (TB) is a conceivably genuine irresistible sickness that essentially influences your lungs. 

Tuberculosis-causing bacteria are spread from person to person through coughing and sneezing.

When uncommon in created nations, tuberculosis started to spread in 1985, to some degree because of the rise of HIV, the infection that causes AIDS. HIV weakens a person's immune system so they cannot fight off the TB virus. In the United States, robust control programs led to a resurgence of tuberculosis in 1993, but this is a matter of concern.

Many types of tuberculosis block the most commonly used drugs to treat the disease. Patients with dynamic tuberculosis need to take different meds for quite a long time to dispose of the disease and forestall the advancement of anti-infection opposition. 

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Symptoms of Tuberculosis (TB)

Although your body may contain bacteria that can cause tuberculosis, your immune system may protect you from getting sick. For this reason, doctors distinguish between:

In latent TB, you get a TB infection, but the bacteria live dormant in your body and cause no symptoms. Dormant TB, additionally called inert TB or TB contamination, isn't infectious. It can turn into active tuberculosis, so treatment is important for a person with latent tuberculosis and helps control the spread of tuberculosis. An expected 2 billion individuals are contaminated with TB. 

Active TB can make you sick and spread to others. This can happen in the first few weeks or years after being infected with TB bacteria.

Signs and symptoms of active tuberculosis include:

cough that lasts three or more weeks

coughing up blood

involuntary weight loss

Tiredness

Warmth

night sweats

cold

anorexia nervosa

Tuberculosis can affect other parts of your body, including your kidneys, spinal cord, or brain. When TB is outside your lungs, symptoms and signs depend on the organs involved. For example, tuberculosis in the spine can cause back pain and tuberculosis in your kidneys can cause blood in your urine.

when to see a doctor

If you have a fever, unexplained weight loss, night sweats, or a persistent cough, see your doctor. These are usually symptoms of tuberculosis, but they can also be caused by other medical problems. Your primary care physician can do tests to assist with deciding the reason. 

 The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention suggests that individuals in danger for tuberculosis be evaluated for idle TB contamination.These recommendations include:

people with HIV/AIDS

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IV drug users

contact with infected people

health care professionals who treat people at high risk for tuberculosis

due to tuberculosis

Tuberculosis is brought about by microorganisms that spread from one individual to another through small drops delivered into the air. 

This can happen when a person coughs, speaks, sneezes, spits, laughs, or sings, as with untreated, active tuberculosis.

Despite the fact that tuberculosis is infectious, it isn't not difficult to get. You are more likely to get TB than a stranger who lives or works with you. Most people with active tuberculosis who have been properly treated for at least two weeks are no longer contagious.

HIV and TB

Since the 1980s, the spread of HIV has dramatically increased the number of tuberculosis viruses that cause AIDS. HIV infection weakens the immune system, making it difficult for the body to control TB bacteria. As a result, people infected with HIV become infected with TB. People are several times more likely to be HIV positive than non-HIV positive people.

drug resistant TB

Tuberculosis is a major cause of death. Another reason is the increase in drug-resistant strains of bacteria. Since the first antibiotics were used to fight tuberculosis 60 years ago, some TB germs have developed the ability to survive and pass this ability on to their offspring.

Tuberculosis drug resistance occurs when antibiotics fail to kill all of their target bacteria. The remaining bacteria become resistant to certain drugs and often to other antibiotics. Some TB microscopic organisms have created protection from generally utilized medicines like isoniazid and rifampin. 

Some forms of tuberculosis have also developed resistance to less commonly used drugs to treat tuberculosis, such as antibiotics known as fluoroquinolones and injectable drugs with amomycin, kanamycin, and capreomycin. These drugs are commonly used to treat infections that are resistant to drugs.

to risk

Tuberculosis can affect anyone, but certain factors can increase the risk of contracting the disease. These factors include:

weak immune system

A healthy immune system often successfully fights off TB bacteria, but your body cannot defend itself if your immune system is weak. Many diseases and medications can weaken your immune system, including:

HIV / AIDS

Diabetes

acute kidney disease

some cancers

cancer treatment, such as chemotherapy

drugs to prevent implantation

Certain medications used to treat arthritis, Crohn's disease, and eczema

malnutrition

too young or too old

traveling or living in a specific area

TB

Africa

Eastern Europe

Asia

Russia

Latin America

Caribbean islands

poverty and substance abuse

Lack of medical services. If you have a low or stable income, live in a remote area, have recently immigrated to the United States, or are homeless, you may not have access to the medical services needed to diagnose and treat TB. 

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Drug abuse IV drug use or alcohol abuse weakens your immune system and puts you at higher risk for TB.

tobacco use. Tobacco use greatly increases the risk of tuberculosis and its consequences.

where you work or live

health work. Standard contact with wiped out individuals expands the danger of openness to TB microscopic organisms.Wearing a mask and washing your hands frequently can significantly reduce your risk.

Living or working in a residential maintenance facility. People who live or work in prisons, immigration centers or nursing homes are at higher risk of getting tuberculosis. This is because overcrowding and poor ventilation increase the risk of disease anywhere.

Living in a refugee camp or shelter. Refugees are at particular risk of contracting tuberculosis due to poor nutrition and poor health and living in overcrowded, unsanitary conditions.

Complications

Without treatment, tuberculosis can be fatal. Untreated active disease usually affects your lungs, but it can spread through your blood to other parts of your body. Complex examples of TB include:

Spine pain. Back pain and heaviness are common complications of tuberculosis.

joint damage. TB usually affects the nose and knees.

Inflammation of the lining of your brain (meningitis). This can be a persistent or intermittent headache that lasts for weeks. Mental changes are also possible.

Liver or kidney problems. Your liver and kidneys help filter waste and impurities from your blood. Tuberculosis affects these functions if it affects the liver or kidneys.

Heart disease Rarely, tuberculosis can infect the tissues around your heart, causing swelling and fluid retention that can impede your heart's ability to pump effectively. This condition, called cardiac tamponade, can be fatal.

Diagnosis

If your latent TB infection test is positive, your doctor may recommend that you take medication to reduce your risk of developing tuberculosis. The only form of tuberculosis that is contagious, active, is when it affects the lungs. So if you can prevent your latent TB from becoming active, you should not spread TB to anyone else.

Protect your family and friends

In the event that you have dynamic TB, keep your microbes with you. It takes a few weeks to be treated with TB drugs before you become infected. To keep your friends and family from getting sick, follow these tips:

The most common medicine for TB is

If you have latent tuberculosis, you only need to take one type of TB medicine. The most common drugs used to treat active tuberculosis include:

isoniazid

Rifampin (Rifadin, Remactane)

ethambutol

pyrazinamide

If you have drug-resistant tuberculosis, a combination of antibiotics called fluoroquinolones and injectable medicines such as amoxicillin, kanamycin or capreomycin is usually used for 20 to 30 months. Some types of TB also cause resistance to these drugs. Several new drugs are being considered as add-on therapies to treat complications related to existing drugs, including:

bedacillin

linzolid

drug side effects

Serious side effects of TB drugs are not uncommon but when they do occur they can be dangerous. All TB drugs can be very toxic to your liver. You should call your doctor right away if you are using these medicines:

vomiting or nausea

anorexia nervosa

yellowing of your skin (jaundice)

dark urine

fever for three or more days for no apparent reason

requires complete treatment

After a few weeks, you will no longer be infected and you will feel better. It can be tempting to stop taking your TB medicine. However, it is very important that you complete the full course of therapy and take the medicine exactly as prescribed by your doctor. Bacterial resistance to drugs that can lead to tuberculosis by stopping treatment early or skipping doses can make it more dangerous and difficult to treat.

To help people survive their treatment, a program called Direct Observation Therapy (DOT) is recommended. In this procedure, a health care worker administers your medicine so that you do not have to remember to take it yourself.




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