Monday, November 29, 2021

Rheumatoid Arthritis

Arthritis is an acute inflammatory disorder that can affect only your joints. 

In certain individuals, this condition can harm different body frameworks, including the skin, eyes, lungs, heart, and veins. 

Unlike osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis affects the lining of your joints, causing painful inflammation that can eventually lead to bone loss and damage to the joints.

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The inflammation associated with arthritis can also damage other parts of the body. Although new drugs have dramatically improved treatment options, severe arthritis may still cause physical disability.

Symptoms of Rheumatoid Arthritis

Signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis may include:

tender, warm, swollen joints

Joint stiffness usually worsens in the morning and after inactivity

Fatigue, fever, and weight loss

Early arthritis first affects your small joints – specifically the joints that connect your hands and toes to your feet.

As the disease progresses, symptoms spread to the wrists, knees, ankles, elbows, buttocks, and shoulders. In most cases, symptoms occur in similar joints on both sides of your body.

About 40 percent of people with arthritis also experience signs and symptoms associated with the joints. Arthritis can affect many non-joint structures, including:



respiratory system



salivary glands

nervous tissue

bone marrow

blood vessels


Signs and symptoms of arthritis can vary in severity and may come and go. Periods of increased disease activity, called flare-ups, are periodically accompanied by periods of relative remission—when inflammation and pain subside or disappear. Over time, arthritis can get worse and deviate from the joints.

Rheumatoid arthritis

Gout occurs when your immune system attacks the synovial membrane layer that surrounds your joints.

Subsequently, irritation thickens the synovium, which in the long run obliterates the ligament and bone in the joint.

The nerves and ligaments that hold the joints together are weak and stretched. Gradually, the joint loses its shape and alignment.

Doctors do not know who started the process, although there may be genetic factors. Although your genes don't actually cause arthritis, they can put you at greater risk for environmental factors — such as infections caused by certain viruses and bacteria — that can lead to disease.

Factors that increase the risk of gout are:

Era. Gout can occur at any age, but it usually begins between the ages of 40 and 60.

family history. If a family member has arthritis, you may be at higher risk for the disease.

Smoking increases your risk of developing arthritis, especially if you have a genetic predisposition to the disease. Smoking also seems to be associated with more serious diseases.

environmental hazards. Although uncertain and underestimated, certain exposures, such as asbestos or silica, may increase the risk of gout. Crisis laborers presented to tidy after the breakdown of the World Trade Center are at an expanded danger of immune system illnesses like joint inflammation.

Obesity People who are overweight or obese have a slightly higher risk of developing gout, especially in women 55 years of age or younger who have been diagnosed with the disease.

Rheumatic complications

Rheumatoid arthritis increases the risk of developing gout by:

Osteoporosis. Rheumatoid arthritis, along with some of the drugs used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, can increase your risk of osteoporosis — a condition that weakens your bones and puts them at risk of fracture.

Rheumatoid nodules. These permanent bumpers of tissue usually form around an angle-like pressure point. However, these nodules can form anywhere on the body, including the lungs.

Dry eyes and mouth. People with arthritis are more likely to develop Sjogren's Syndrome, a disorder that reduces moisture in your eyes and mouth.

Infection. Many drugs used to treat the disease and arthritis can weaken the immune system, increasing the risk of infection.

unusual body. People with gout also have higher levels of fat and fat than people with a normal body mass index (BMI).

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carpal tunnel syndrome. If arthritis affects your wrists, the inflammation can compress the nerves in your hands and fingers.

Cardiovascular problems. Rheumatoid arthritis can increase your risk of hardening and clogging of your arteries, as well as inflammation of the sac around your heart.

lung disease. People with arthritis are more prone to inflammation and scarring of the lung tissue, which can make breathing difficult.

Lymphoma Rheumatoid joint pain expands the danger of lymphoma, a gathering of blood diseases that create in the lymphatic framework. conclusion Rheumatoid joint pain can be hard to analyze in its beginning phases in light of the fact that the early signs and side effects are like those of numerous different infections. There is no single blood test or physical test to confirm the diagnosis.

During the actual test, your primary care physician will check for enlarging, redness, and warmth in your joints. It can test your reflexes and muscle strength.

Blood test

Individuals with joint pain regularly have raised erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, or sed rate) or C-receptive protein (CRP), which can demonstrate the presence of provocative cycles in the body. 

Imaging test

Your doctor may recommend X-rays from time to time to monitor the progression of arthritis in your joints. X-ray and ultrasound tests can assist your primary care physician with deciding the seriousness of the sickness in your body.


There is no cure for rheumatoid arthritis. But recent research has shown that treatment with potent anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) is less likely to relieve symptoms.


The type of medicine your doctor prescribes will depend on the severity of your symptoms and your arthritis.

NSAID. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can reduce pain and reduce inflammation. Stronger NSAIDs are available by prescription. Side effects may include ringing in your ears, upset stomach, heart problems, and liver and kidney damage.

Steroids Corticosteroid medications, such as prednisone, reduce swelling and pain and reduce joint damage. Side effects may include bone loss, weight gain, and diabetes. Doctors often prescribe corticosteroids to gradually reduce the drug to less severe symptoms.

Anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs). These drugs can reduce the development of rheumatoid arthritis and prevent permanent damage to joints and other tissues. Common DMRDs include methotrexate (Trexal, Otrexap, Rasuvo), leflunomide (Arava), hydroxychloroquine (Plaquinil), and sulfasalazine (Azulfide).

Side effects can vary but may include liver damage, compression of the bone marrow, and serious lung infections.

biological component. Also known as biological response modifiers, this new range of DMARDs includes abatacept (Orencia), adalimumab (Humira), akinera (Kineret), certolizumab (Cimzia), in alief (Ananarp). rituximab Retoxin), tocilizumab (Actemara) and tofacitinib (Gelzenz).

These drugs can target certain parts of the immune system, causing inflammation that can damage joints and tissues. Such drugs also increase the risk of infection.

Organic DMRDs are most effective when combined with non-organic DMARDs such as methotrexate.

Tuesday, November 23, 2021

What Is Lupus?

Lupus is an acute inflammatory disease that occurs when your body's immune system attacks your own tissues and organs. 

The inflammation caused by lupus can affect various body systems, including your joints, skin, kidneys, blood cells, brain, heart, and lungs.

Lupus is difficult to diagnose because its symptoms and signs are usually similar to those of other diseases. The most common sign of lupus — a rash on the face that looks like butterfly wings on both cheeks — appears in most cases of lupus, but not all cases.

Some people develop a tendency to develop lupus, which can be caused by infections, certain medications, or even exposure to the sun. Although there is no cure for lupus, treatment can help control symptoms.

Symptoms of lupus

No two cases of lupus are the same. Signs and symptoms may appear suddenly or develop gradually, may be mild or severe, and may be temporary or permanent. The vast majority with lupus have a gentle sickness portrayed by scenes — called eruptions — when indications and signs deteriorate for some time, then, at that point, improve momentarily, or even totally.

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The signs and symptoms of lupus you experience depend on which systems of the body the disease affects. 

The most common signs and symptoms include:

fatigue and fever

Joint pain, stiffness, and swelling

butterfly-shaped pimples on the face that cover the cheeks and the bridge of the nose

Skin lesions that may be exposed or damaged by sunlight (photosensitivity)

fingers and toes that turn white or blue during cold or stress (Reynolds case)

shortness of breath

Pain in chest

dry eyes

Headache, confusion, and memory loss

when to see a doctor

See your doctor if you experience unexpected acne, fever, persistent pain or fatigue.

Cause of lupus

Lupus occurs when your immune system attacks the healthy tissues of your body. Lupus is probably caused by a combination of your genetics and your environment. It has been shown that people with a genetic predisposition to lupus can develop the disease when they are exposed to something in the environment that can cause lupus. However, in most cases the cause of lupus is unknown. Some possible triggers include:

Exposure to sunlight can cause skin lesions or internal reactions in sensitive individuals.

Infection. Infection can cause lupus to start or recur in some people.

Medicines. Lupus can be started with certain types of anti-cesarean drugs, blood pressure medications, and antibiotics. People with drug-induced lupus have stopped taking the drug.

To risk

Factors that increase the risk of lupus include:

Your gender Lupus is more common in women.

Era. Although lupus affects people of all ages, it is most commonly diagnosed between the ages of 15 and 40.

Lupus is more common in people of African-American, Hispanic, and Asian descent.

complications of lupus


The inflammation caused by lupus can affect many parts of your body, including:

Kidney. Lupus can cause severe kidney damage and is the leading cause of death in people with lupus. Symptoms of kidney problems can include general itching, chest pain, nausea, vomiting, and swelling.

brain and central nervous system. If lupus affects your brain, you may experience headaches, dizziness, behavior changes, confusion, and even stroke or contractions. Many individuals with lupus have memory issues and may experience issues offering their viewpoints. 

Blood and blood vessels. Lupus can cause blood problems, including anemia and the risk of bleeding or fatigue. This can lead to inflammation of the blood vessels (vasculitis).

respiratory system. Having lupus increases the risk of inflammation in the lining of your chest cavity, which makes it difficult to breathe. You may also be at increased risk of getting pneumonia.

Heart. Lupus can cause inflammation of your heart muscle, arteries, or pericarditis. The danger of respiratory failure and stroke likewise increments essentially. 

Contaminations that usually influence individuals with lupus incorporate urinary lot diseases, respiratory contaminations, yeast diseases, salmonella, ringworm, and ringworm. 

Cancer. Having lupus increases your risk of cancer.

Bone tissue death (vascular necrosis). When the blood supply to bones is reduced, small bones often break and eventually fracture. The hip joint is most commonly affected.

Pregnancy complications. Ladies with lupus have a higher danger of premature delivery. 

Lupus increases the risk of high blood pressure during pregnancy (preeclampsia) and premature labor. To decrease the danger of these difficulties, specialists frequently suggest postponing pregnancy until your illness is taken care of for somewhere around a half year. 

Testing and diagnosis

Lupus is difficult to diagnose because symptoms and signs vary greatly from person to person. The signs and side effects of lupus can change after some time and cross-over with those of numerous different issues. No single test can diagnose lupus. Diagnosis is made by combining the results of blood and urine tests, symptoms and signs, and physical tests.

Lab test

Blood and urine tests may include:

Complete blood count. This test estimates the number of red platelets, the number of white platelets and platelets, just as the measure of hemoglobin, the protein in red platelets. 

The results may indicate that you have anemia, which usually occurs in lupus. Lupus can cause a decrease in the number of white blood cells or platelets.

The rate at which red blood cells decrease. This blood test determines how many red blood cells settle to the bottom of the tube within an hour. Systemic diseases such as lupus can show up faster than usual. Rain is not specific to any one disease. If you have lupus, another inflammatory condition, cancer, or infection, it can get worse.

Evaluation of kidney and liver. Blood tests can determine how well your kidneys and liver are working. Lupus can affect these organs.

Examination of your urine sample will show an increase in the amount of protein or red blood cells in the urine, which may be due to lupus affecting your kidneys.

Antinuclear antibody (ANA) test. A positive test for the presence of these antibodies - created by your safe framework - demonstrates an invigorated insusceptible framework. Although the ANA test is positive for most people with lupus, most people with positive ANA do not have lupus. If your ANA test is positive, your doctor may recommend more specific antibody tests.

Imaging test

If your primary care physician speculates that lupus is influencing your lungs or heart, they might propose:

A chest X-ray may show an unusual coloration of your breasts, indicating fluid or swelling in your lungs.

Echocardiogram. This test uses sound waves to create a real-time image of your beating heart. It can diagnose problems with your valves and other parts of your heart.


Lupus can damage your kidneys in many ways, and treatment varies depending on the type of damage. In some cases, it may be necessary to examine a small sample of kidney tissue to determine the best treatment. Samples can be obtained with a needle or small incision.

Treatment and medicine

Treatment of lupus depends on your symptoms and signs. The benefits and risks need to be carefully discussed with your doctor to determine whether your symptoms and signs should be treated and which drugs should be used. As your signs and symptoms worsen, you and your doctor may feel that you need to change your medication or diet. The most commonly used drugs to control lupus include:

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Stronger NSAIDs are available by prescription. Side effects of NSAIDs include stomach bleeding, kidney problems, and heart problems.

Anti-malarial drugs. Medicines commonly used to treat malaria, such as hydroxychloroquine (Plaquenil), can help control lupus. Side effects include stomach upset and, in rare cases, cataracts.

Corticosteroids. Prednisone and other types of corticosteroids can fight the inflammation of lupus, but often cause long-term side effects -- weight gain, easy bruising, osteoporosis, high blood pressure, diabetes, and an increased risk of infection. High doses and long-term treatment increase the risk of side effects.

Immunosuppressants. Immune suppressants may be helpful in severe cases of lupus. Examples include azathioprine (Imuran, Azasan), mycophenolate (Cellcept), leflunomide (Arava), and methotrexate (Trexol). Conceivable incidental effects might incorporate an expanded danger of disease, liver harm, diminished fruitfulness, and an expanded danger of malignant growth. 

A newer drug, belimumab (Benelista), also seems to reduce the symptoms of lupus in some people. Side effects include nausea, diarrhea, and fever.

Lifestyle and home remedies

If you have lupus, take steps to care for your body. Simple treatments can help you prevent the onset of lupus erythematosus and, if found, better cope with the signs and symptoms you are experiencing. try:

See your doctor regularly. Routine checkups instead of seeing your doctor when your symptoms get worse can help your doctor avoid irritants and be effective in dealing with regular health issues such as stress, diet, and exercise that lead to complications of lupus. can. helps prevent

get plenty of rest. People with lupus always experience persistent fatigue that is different from normal fatigue and is not relieved. Therefore, it can be difficult to decide when to slow down. Get enough sleep at night and sleep or rest during the day as needed.

Be careful, as UV light can shine through, wear protective clothing – such as a hat, long-sleeved shirt, and long pants – and use sunscreen with a sun protection factor of at least 55 every time you go outside. NS.

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Exercise regularly. Exercise can help you recover from stroke, reduce your risk of heart attack, fight depression, and promote general health.

Take a healthy diet. A sound eating regimen centers around organic products, vegetables, and entire grains. Sometimes your diet may be off-limits, especially if you have high blood pressure, kidney damage, or gastrointestinal problems.

Alternative medicine

Sometimes alternative or complementary medicines can be beneficial for lupus patients. However, these treatments are usually used in conjunction with traditional medicine. Talk to your doctor before starting this treatment on your own. She can help you measure the benefits and risks and tell you whether the treatment will interfere with your current lupus medication.

Complementary and alternative treatments for lupus include:

Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). Supplements containing this hormone have been shown to reduce the dose of steroids that some people need to keep lupus symptoms stable.

Preliminary research has shown some promise, although more research is needed. Side effects of fish oil supplements may include nausea, belching, and a fishy taste in the mouth.

Vitamin D There is some evidence that people with lupus may benefit from vitamin D supplementation.

Monday, November 22, 2021

Know About Leukemia

Leukemia is a malignant growth of the blood-framing tissues of the body, including the bone marrow and lymphatic framework. 

There are various kinds of leukemia. A few kinds of leukemia are more normal in youngsters. Different kinds of leukemia are more normal in grown-ups. 

Leukemia usually involves white blood cells. Your white blood cells are a powerful anti-infection fighter – they normally grow and distribute throughout your body as needed. Yet, in individuals with leukemia, the bone marrow produces unusual white platelets, which don't work as expected. 

Treatment of leukemia can be complex - it depends on the blood type and other factors. But there are some strategies and resources that can help make your treatment a success.

symptoms of leukemia

The symptoms of leukemia vary according to the blood type. Common leukemia signs and symptoms include:

fever or cold

persistent tiredness, weakness

frequent or severe infections

lose weight without trying

swollen lymph nodes, enlarged liver or spleen

easy bleeding or blisters

frequent runny nose


petticoat on your skin

excessive sweating, especially at night

bone pain or tenderness

when to see a doctor

If you have persistent signs or symptoms of anxiety, see your doctor.

The manifestations of leukemia are frequently obscure and not explicit. 

 You may ignore the early symptoms of leukemia because they can be like the flu and other common diseases.

Sometimes, leukemia can be found during a blood test for another condition.

Due to leukemia

The exact cause of leukemia is not understood by scientists. It appears to have evolved from a combination of genetic and environmental factors.

How is leukemia formed?

Typically, leukemia occurs when certain blood cells have mutations in their DNA – signals in each cell indicating their activity. There may be other changes in the cell that are not yet fully understood that may contribute to leukemia.

Some lesions cause cells to grow and divide rapidly, and normal cells to escape death. Over time, these abnormal cells can carry healthy blood cells to the bone marrow, resulting in a decrease in white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets, leading to the signs and symptoms of leukemia.

How is leukemia classified?

Specialists characterize leukemia as dependent on the speed of its movement and the kind of cell. 

The first type is classified based on how fast leukemia progresses:

acute leukemia. In acute leukemia, the abnormal blood cells are incomplete blood cells (rupture). They cannot function normally, and they multiply rapidly, so the disease progresses rapidly. Acute leukemia is aggressive, requires timely treatment.

severe leukemia. There are different types of chronic leukemia. Some make too many cells and some very few. Chronic leukemia involves more mature blood cells. These platelets repeat or amass all the more leisurely and can work regularly for quite a while. 

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Some types of chronic leukemia do not initially cause any initial symptoms and may remain undiagnosed or unknown for many years to come.

The second type is classified according to the type of white blood cell:

lymphocytic leukemia. This kind of leukemia influences the lymphoid cells (lymphocytes) that make up lymphoid or lymphatic tissue. 

 Lymphatic tissue enhances your immune system.

Myelogenous (my-uh-LOHJ-uh-nus) leukemia. This type of leukemia affects myeloid cells. Myeloid cells bring about red platelets, white platelets, and platelet-creating cells. types of leukemia

The main types of leukemia are:

Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL). It is the most normal type of leukemia in little youngsters. It can happen in all adults.

Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). AML is a common form of leukemia. It occurs in children and adults. AML is the most widely recognized type of intense leukemia in grown-ups. 

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). With CLL, the most common chronic adult leukemia, you may be cured for years without the need for treatment.

Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). This type of leukemia mainly affects adults. A person with CML leukemia cells may experience symptoms for months or years where they can multiply rapidly.

Other rare forms of leukemia include wall cell leukemia, myelodysplastic syndromes, and myeloproliferative disorders.


Some factors that increase the risk of developing certain types of leukemia are:

Previous cancer treatment. People who have received certain types of chemotherapy and radiation therapy for other cancers have an increased risk of developing certain types of leukemia.

genetic disorder. Hereditary anomalies assume a part in the development of leukemia. Certain hereditary problems, for example, Down disorder, are related to an expanded danger of leukemia. 

Exposure to specific chemicals. Exposure to certain chemicals, such as benzene -- which is found in gasoline and used in the chemical industry -- is also associated with an increased risk of certain types of leukemia.

Smoking increases the risk of acute myelogenous leukemia.

Family history of leukemia. If members of your family have been diagnosed with leukemia, you may be at higher risk.


Before symptoms begin, doctors can diagnose acute leukemia with routine blood tests. If this happens, or you have any signs or symptoms of leukemia, you may need the following diagnostic tests:

physical test. Your PCP will search for actual indications of leukemia, going from shortcoming to fair skin, enlarged lymph hubs, and an expanded liver and spleen. 

blood test. By looking at your blood samples, your doctor can determine whether you have abnormal levels of white blood cells or platelets -- which could be a sign of leukemia.

Bone marrow examination. Your doctor may recommend a procedure to remove a sample of bone marrow from your nail. The bone marrow is taken out utilizing a long, slight needle. The example is shipped off a research center to recognize leukemia cells. An explicit trial of your leukemia cells might uncover specific qualities that are utilized to decide your treatment choices. 

You may need additional tests to confirm the diagnosis and determine the type and extent of leukemia in your body. Some types of leukemia are classified into stages, which reflect the severity of the disease. Your leukemia stage helps your doctor decide on a treatment plan.

Treatment and medicine

The treatment of your leukemia depends on several factors. Your PCP will decide your leukemia treatment choices dependent on your age and generally speaking, wellbeing, what sort of leukemia you have, and regardless of whether it has spread to different parts Common treatments used to fight leukemia include:


Chemotherapy is the main treatment for leukemia. This medication treatment utilizes synthetic compounds to obliterate leukemia cells. 

Depending on the type of leukemia you have, you may get a drug or a combination of drugs. These medicines can come in pill form or they can be injected directly into a vein.

Biological medicine. 

Biologic therapy works by using therapies that help your immune system detect and attack leukemia cells.

Targeted therapy. 

Targeted therapy uses drugs that attack the specific weakness of your cancer cells. For example, the drug imatinib (Gleevec) blocks the action of a protein in leukemia cells in people with chronic myelogenous leukemia. Therefore this disease can be controlled.

Radiation therapy. 

Radiation treatment utilizes X-beams or other high-energy beams to harm leukemia cells and stop their development. 

During radiation therapy, with a large machine moving around you, you lie on a table where the radiation is at specific points in your body. Radiation therapy may be used for stem cell transplantation.

Stem cell transplant. A stem cell transplant is a way to replace your diseased bone marrow and use healthy bone marrow.

Before an undeveloped cell relocates, you get high portions of chemotherapy or radiation treatment to annihilate your infected bone marrow.

You might get undifferentiated organisms from a benefactor, or sometimes you might have the option to utilize your own foundational microorganisms. An undifferentiated organism relocate is basically the same as a bone marrow relocation.

Sunday, November 21, 2021


Tuberculosis (TB) is a conceivably genuine irresistible sickness that essentially influences your lungs. 

Tuberculosis-causing bacteria are spread from person to person through coughing and sneezing.

When uncommon in created nations, tuberculosis started to spread in 1985, to some degree because of the rise of HIV, the infection that causes AIDS. HIV weakens a person's immune system so they cannot fight off the TB virus. In the United States, robust control programs led to a resurgence of tuberculosis in 1993, but this is a matter of concern.

Many types of tuberculosis block the most commonly used drugs to treat the disease. Patients with dynamic tuberculosis need to take different meds for quite a long time to dispose of the disease and forestall the advancement of anti-infection opposition. 

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Symptoms of Tuberculosis (TB)

Although your body may contain bacteria that can cause tuberculosis, your immune system may protect you from getting sick. For this reason, doctors distinguish between:

In latent TB, you get a TB infection, but the bacteria live dormant in your body and cause no symptoms. Dormant TB, additionally called inert TB or TB contamination, isn't infectious. It can turn into active tuberculosis, so treatment is important for a person with latent tuberculosis and helps control the spread of tuberculosis. An expected 2 billion individuals are contaminated with TB. 

Active TB can make you sick and spread to others. This can happen in the first few weeks or years after being infected with TB bacteria.

Signs and symptoms of active tuberculosis include:

cough that lasts three or more weeks

coughing up blood

involuntary weight loss



night sweats


anorexia nervosa

Tuberculosis can affect other parts of your body, including your kidneys, spinal cord, or brain. When TB is outside your lungs, symptoms and signs depend on the organs involved. For example, tuberculosis in the spine can cause back pain and tuberculosis in your kidneys can cause blood in your urine.

when to see a doctor

If you have a fever, unexplained weight loss, night sweats, or a persistent cough, see your doctor. These are usually symptoms of tuberculosis, but they can also be caused by other medical problems. Your primary care physician can do tests to assist with deciding the reason. 

 The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention suggests that individuals in danger for tuberculosis be evaluated for idle TB contamination.These recommendations include:

people with HIV/AIDS

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IV drug users

contact with infected people

health care professionals who treat people at high risk for tuberculosis

due to tuberculosis

Tuberculosis is brought about by microorganisms that spread from one individual to another through small drops delivered into the air. 

This can happen when a person coughs, speaks, sneezes, spits, laughs, or sings, as with untreated, active tuberculosis.

Despite the fact that tuberculosis is infectious, it isn't not difficult to get. You are more likely to get TB than a stranger who lives or works with you. Most people with active tuberculosis who have been properly treated for at least two weeks are no longer contagious.

HIV and TB

Since the 1980s, the spread of HIV has dramatically increased the number of tuberculosis viruses that cause AIDS. HIV infection weakens the immune system, making it difficult for the body to control TB bacteria. As a result, people infected with HIV become infected with TB. People are several times more likely to be HIV positive than non-HIV positive people.

drug resistant TB

Tuberculosis is a major cause of death. Another reason is the increase in drug-resistant strains of bacteria. Since the first antibiotics were used to fight tuberculosis 60 years ago, some TB germs have developed the ability to survive and pass this ability on to their offspring.

Tuberculosis drug resistance occurs when antibiotics fail to kill all of their target bacteria. The remaining bacteria become resistant to certain drugs and often to other antibiotics. Some TB microscopic organisms have created protection from generally utilized medicines like isoniazid and rifampin. 

Some forms of tuberculosis have also developed resistance to less commonly used drugs to treat tuberculosis, such as antibiotics known as fluoroquinolones and injectable drugs with amomycin, kanamycin, and capreomycin. These drugs are commonly used to treat infections that are resistant to drugs.

to risk

Tuberculosis can affect anyone, but certain factors can increase the risk of contracting the disease. These factors include:

weak immune system

A healthy immune system often successfully fights off TB bacteria, but your body cannot defend itself if your immune system is weak. Many diseases and medications can weaken your immune system, including:



acute kidney disease

some cancers

cancer treatment, such as chemotherapy

drugs to prevent implantation

Certain medications used to treat arthritis, Crohn's disease, and eczema


too young or too old

traveling or living in a specific area



Eastern Europe



Latin America

Caribbean islands

poverty and substance abuse

Lack of medical services. If you have a low or stable income, live in a remote area, have recently immigrated to the United States, or are homeless, you may not have access to the medical services needed to diagnose and treat TB. 

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Drug abuse IV drug use or alcohol abuse weakens your immune system and puts you at higher risk for TB.

tobacco use. Tobacco use greatly increases the risk of tuberculosis and its consequences.

where you work or live

health work. Standard contact with wiped out individuals expands the danger of openness to TB microscopic organisms.Wearing a mask and washing your hands frequently can significantly reduce your risk.

Living or working in a residential maintenance facility. People who live or work in prisons, immigration centers or nursing homes are at higher risk of getting tuberculosis. This is because overcrowding and poor ventilation increase the risk of disease anywhere.

Living in a refugee camp or shelter. Refugees are at particular risk of contracting tuberculosis due to poor nutrition and poor health and living in overcrowded, unsanitary conditions.


Without treatment, tuberculosis can be fatal. Untreated active disease usually affects your lungs, but it can spread through your blood to other parts of your body. Complex examples of TB include:

Spine pain. Back pain and heaviness are common complications of tuberculosis.

joint damage. TB usually affects the nose and knees.

Inflammation of the lining of your brain (meningitis). This can be a persistent or intermittent headache that lasts for weeks. Mental changes are also possible.

Liver or kidney problems. Your liver and kidneys help filter waste and impurities from your blood. Tuberculosis affects these functions if it affects the liver or kidneys.

Heart disease Rarely, tuberculosis can infect the tissues around your heart, causing swelling and fluid retention that can impede your heart's ability to pump effectively. This condition, called cardiac tamponade, can be fatal.


If your latent TB infection test is positive, your doctor may recommend that you take medication to reduce your risk of developing tuberculosis. The only form of tuberculosis that is contagious, active, is when it affects the lungs. So if you can prevent your latent TB from becoming active, you should not spread TB to anyone else.

Protect your family and friends

In the event that you have dynamic TB, keep your microbes with you. It takes a few weeks to be treated with TB drugs before you become infected. To keep your friends and family from getting sick, follow these tips:

The most common medicine for TB is

If you have latent tuberculosis, you only need to take one type of TB medicine. The most common drugs used to treat active tuberculosis include:


Rifampin (Rifadin, Remactane)



If you have drug-resistant tuberculosis, a combination of antibiotics called fluoroquinolones and injectable medicines such as amoxicillin, kanamycin or capreomycin is usually used for 20 to 30 months. Some types of TB also cause resistance to these drugs. Several new drugs are being considered as add-on therapies to treat complications related to existing drugs, including:



drug side effects

Serious side effects of TB drugs are not uncommon but when they do occur they can be dangerous. All TB drugs can be very toxic to your liver. You should call your doctor right away if you are using these medicines:

vomiting or nausea

anorexia nervosa

yellowing of your skin (jaundice)

dark urine

fever for three or more days for no apparent reason

requires complete treatment

After a few weeks, you will no longer be infected and you will feel better. It can be tempting to stop taking your TB medicine. However, it is very important that you complete the full course of therapy and take the medicine exactly as prescribed by your doctor. Bacterial resistance to drugs that can lead to tuberculosis by stopping treatment early or skipping doses can make it more dangerous and difficult to treat.

To help people survive their treatment, a program called Direct Observation Therapy (DOT) is recommended. In this procedure, a health care worker administers your medicine so that you do not have to remember to take it yourself.

What Is Hypersplenism?

Premature destruction of blood cells by the spleen

The spleen is an organ found in the upper left part of your abdomen. If your spleen is too active, it will remove blood cells too quickly and too quickly. The spleen plays an important role in helping your body fight infection. Spleen problems make you more likely to get infections.

Symptoms of Hypersplenism

1. Enlarged spleen

2. low levels of one or more types of blood cells

3. Feeling full soon after eating

4. left side abdominal pain

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5. Due to hypersplenism

6. Common causes of hypersplenism include:

7. Cirrhosis (advanced liver disease)

8. Lymphoma

9. Malaria

10. Tea.

Various connective tissue and inflammatory diseases diagnosis

The diagnosis of hypersplenism begins with a review of the patient's history and careful palpation of the spleen. Sometimes, the doctor may find that the spleen is enlarged. X-ray studies such as ultrasound and computed tomography scans (CT scans) can help diagnose possible root causes such as splenomegaly and tumors. 

Blood tests show a decrease in white blood cells, red blood cells or platelets. The second test measures red blood cells in the liver and spleen after the injection of radioactive material and identifies whether the spleen is capturing or destroying large amounts of red blood cells.

The diagnosis of an enlarged spleen is made using a combination of the patient's history, physical examination, if possible splenomegaly, and diagnostic tests. A history of fever and systemic symptoms may be due to infection, malaria, or inflammatory disorders. 

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A complete blood count is done to check the number of young red blood cells. Liver function tests, CT scans, and ultrasound exams can also help detect an enlarged spleen.


Preferably splenic ablation (splenectomy or radiation therapy) In secondary hyperplasia, the underlying disease should be treated to prevent further division or destruction of blood cells and possible splenomegaly. 

That treatment will be attempted before the splinectomy is removed, which is avoided if possible. In severe cases, the spleen must be removed. Splenectomy will correct the effects of low blood cell concentration in the blood.

Vaccination for splenectomy patients Because the spleen prevents severe infection of encapsulated bacteria, splenectomy should be avoided whenever possible, and patients undergoing splenectomy should be treated with Streptococcus pneumoniae.

Key term

Cirrhosis: Stiffness of an organ, usually the liver. Liver cirrhosis is a progressive disease that destroys liver cells, disrupts blood flow to the liver and impairs liver function.

To beat: to beat or throb. The heartbeat usually predicts an irregular or fast rhythm.

Polycythemia vera: A serious disorder characterized by an increase in red blood cell mass and other disorders of the circulatory system. It is most common in men of Jewish descent between the ages of 40 and 60.

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Systemic: Pertaining to the system, or specifically to the system as a whole.

Systemic lupus erythematosus: A connective tissue disease that causes fever, weakness, fatigue, joint pain, and arthritis.

Ulcer: A rupture of the skin or mucous membrane with persistent tissue damage on the surface.

Friday, November 19, 2021

Panic Attacks - What To Do About Panic Attack And Anxiety?

You had a panic attack, it was terrifying and scary but now you want to know what to do about it?

This is a question that many worried people face. They no longer want to control their fear, but they are not sure how to change their situation. There are prescription drugs but I would like to avoid them if possible. There are a few ways you can reduce or cure your panic attacks. Find relaxation techniques that work for you, exercise, and work on redirect positive thoughts.

When you have a panic attack, your body goes into overdrive. Your body is sounding the alarm and your heart is beating fast, your breathing is slow and fast, and blood is pouring from the core of your body, leaving your hands and feet tingling.

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These sensations can be overwhelming and often add to the anxiety you experience. Your body is ready to fight or run away; This is an ancient defensive instinct that begins when you feel surrounded, vulnerable, or scared.

This is how your body protects itself. These powerful sensations alone are undeniable. They must be deceiving you into thinking that everything is fine, even if your mind is telling you.

For those who suffer from panic attacks, these events happen at unfortunate times and in unfortunate places. The sensation that causes a severe reaction is usually something that does not cause such a strong reaction in non-anxious people.

Meeting the boss, talking in front of others, meeting your child's teacher, going to the theater can cause panic attacks. There are many reasons why someone might attack, it's important to examine your specific trigger. Is it a crowd, a meeting of officials, or is there a fear of crackdown?

Once you understand your triggers, you can work on conquering them more effectively.

Avoid activities and people you don't want to do that trigger your panic attacks. Don't postpone a meeting with your child's teacher for a few months because you don't want to talk to her, don't cancel any ads because you know you'll have to go to other talk events. Avoiding activities because of an anxiety state makes you more likely to develop serious anxiety problems.

Besides medication, there are many ways to deal with a panic reaction. While prescriptions may be the solution for some people and some people have had good results with drugs like Paxil and Zoloft, many people don't want to rely on prescription drugs or face their potential side effects.

There are ways to deal with panic, some nonprescription methods that may better meet the needs of some anxious people.

There's always a good place to start exercising; It releases natural endorphins and provides an outlet for anxiety and aggression. It can also be a great self-esteem booster and can help you feel good about yourself. In addition, you can learn and use various relaxation techniques such as meditation, yoga, progressive muscle relaxation, and deep breathing. All of this is a great way to spread positive vibrations throughout your mind and body, in response to your body's natural relaxation.

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Another great way to deal with the negative effects of a panic attack is to redirect your negative thoughts to positive ones. It's a simple premise but it takes practice and action to apply it effectively.

Basically, you are taking your thoughts away from destruction and misery and focusing on all the possible things that could go wrong in any given situation, past success or positive results achieved in a similar situation. By actively and consciously changing your way of thinking, you will reduce the natural physiological response that will cause your body to become anxious.

Relaxation technique to stop panic attacks and anxiety

Panic attacks can be treated at home, but be careful not to mistake a more serious illness (such as a heart attack) for a panic attack. Know your body and know yourself. If you have a severe panic attack, it is best for you to experience the panic attack for the first time.

The following techniques can help you survive a panic attack, or you can try yourself if you're experiencing panic attack symptoms and hoping to lessen the effects.

First, relax your shoulders and feel any tension in your muscles. It may sound silly, I want to "talk inside" with myself. I tell to rest my toes and maybe bring them back to my ankles - lift your whole body up and try to relax every part of you as much as you can.

Then, strain and relax all of the large muscle groups slowly and steadily. Tighten your left leg with a long breath, for example, hold, then release the leg muscles and exhale. Proceed to the second step. Move the body one muscle group at a time.

Try to hold your breath. This can be done by completely exhaling each breath with clean lips when the candle is extinguished. Simultaneously place your hands on your stomach to feel the movement of breathing. This can allow you to control your symptoms.

Tell yourself (or someone else if you're using this technique with someone) that you're not going crazy. If you're worried that you can't breathe, remember that if you can speak, you are able to breathe.

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This technique can help you survive the worst panic attacks or especially the worst ones; It will not cure your panic attack. The best part is that it will help you through difficult times. Doctors have a lot of "tested and true" medicines for panic attacks, but most will wake you up and not be able to perform your best. I have never liked the feeling that my days are passing like I was in a thick fog. How can I tell it's slow and hard.

Therapy can help reduce anxiety and heal panic attacks. But therapy can take years to get you where you can. Many panic attacks are caused by stress. A little stress and a lot of stress. One day you're handling it pretty well until your first panic attack, yet you can show up to something that caused such a huge reaction! This is because there is probably nothing that is causing it – and so panic attacks can take a long time to heal.




By weakening your immune system, HIV interferes with your body's ability to fight disease.

HIV is a sexually transmitted infection. It can be spread through blood contact from an infected person or from mother to child during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding. Without medication, it can take years for your immune system to weaken until you become infected with HIV.

There is no solution for HIV/AIDS, yet there are meds that can significantly lethargic the movement of the infection. These drugs have reduced AIDS-related deaths in many developed countries. But HIV continues to affect Africa, Haiti, and parts of Asia.

Symptoms of HIV/AIDS

Manifestations of HIV and AIDS fluctuate as indicated by the phase of the disease. 

Primary infection (acute HIV)

Most people infected with HIV develop a flu-like illness within a month or two of the virus entering the body. This condition, known as primary or acute HIV infection, can last for weeks. Possible signs and symptoms include:



muscle aches and joint pain

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Sore throat

Swollen lymph glands, mainly on the neck

However, symptoms of primary HIV virus can be mild to insignificant, as the viral load in the bloodstream is particularly high at this time. As a result, the infection spreads more efficiently during primary infection than during later stages of HIV infection.

Clinical late infection (acute HIV)

In some people, there is persistent swelling of the lymph nodes during clinical latent HIV. Otherwise, there are no special signs and symptoms. notwithstanding, HIV stays in the body and in tainted white platelets. If you are not receiving antiretroviral therapy, clinical latent infection usually lasts for 10 years. In people taking antiretroviral drugs, this phase can last for decades. But some people get serious diseases very quickly

Early symptoms of HIV infection

As the infection proceeds to increase and obliterate resistant cells, you might foster a gentle disease or foster extreme signs and indications, for example, 

Warmth Tiredness 

Swollen lymph hubs - ​regularly one of the principal indications of HIV contamination 


weight loss

oral yeast infection (yeast)

shingles (herpes zoster)

AIDS progression

If you don't get any treatment for your HIV infection, the disease will turn into AIDS in about 10 years. By the time AIDS develops, your immune system has been severely damaged, giving you opportunistic infections – diseases that do not normally affect a person with a healthy immune system.

Signs and side effects of a portion of these diseases might include: 

Night sweats

Frequent fever

Acute diarrhea

Permanent white spots or unusual blisters on your tongue or mouth

Frequent, unexplained fatigue

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Weight loss

Acne or pimples on the skin


HIV is a viral infection that is spread through sexual contact, blood, or mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding.

How does HIV become AIDS?

HIV destroys CD4 cells – a special type of white blood cell that plays an important role in helping your body fight disease. Your immune system weakens because too many CD4 cells die. You can be infected with HIV for many years before getting AIDS. People with HIV have AIDS when their CD4 count drops below 200 or when they experience the complications that define AIDS.

How is HIV spread

To become tainted with HIV, contaminated blood, semen or vaginal release should enter your body. 

normal contact with a person with HIV or AIDS -- hugging, kissing, dancing, or shaking hands -- can prevent you from getting infected. HIV isn't spread through the air, water, or bug nibbles. You can become tainted with HIV in more than one way, including: 

by sexual intercourse, You can become infected if you have vaginal, anal, or oral sex with an infected partner who has blood, semen, or vaginal discharge.  The infection can enter your body through mouth bruises or little tears that occasionally create in the butt or vagina during sexual activity. 

By blood transfusion In some cases, the virus can be transmitted through blood transfusion. US hospitals and blood banks are now testing the blood supply for HIV antibodies, so the risk is very low.

By dividing the needles. HIV can be communicated through needles and needles polluted with tainted blood. Sharing intravenous medication material puts you in danger for HIV and other irresistible sicknesses, like hepatitis. 

During pregnancy or during childbirth or while breastfeeding. Infected mothers can infect their babies. But HIV can be spread during pregnancy. By treating HIV infection, mothers significantly reduce the risk to their babies.

To risk

When HIV/AIDS first emerged in the United States, it primarily affected men who had sex with men. However, it has now become clear that HIV is also transmitted through the opposite sex. Anyone of any age, race, sex, or sexual orientation can become infected, but you are most at risk of HIV/AIDS if you:

Have unprotected sex. Unprotected sex means having sex without using a new latex or polyurethane condom each time. Anal sex is more dangerous than vaginal intercourse. The risk increases if you have more than one sexual partner.

Any other STI Many sexually transmitted infections (STIs) cause open blisters on your genitals. These blisters act as a gateway for HIV to enter your body.

Use vascular drugs. People who use intravenous drugs usually share needles and syringes. This puts them in contact with droplets of other people's blood.

He is an uncircumcised man. Studies show that lack of circumcision increases the risk of transgender sex being protected against HIV.


HIV contamination debilitates your insusceptible framework, which expands your odds of getting numerous diseases and a few kinds of malignant growth.

Common Infections for HIV/AIDS

TB Resource Storm In poor countries, TB is the most common opportunistic infection associated with HIV and the leading cause of death among people living with AIDS.

Cytomegalo virus. The common herpes virus is spread through body fluids such as saliva, blood, urine, semen, and breast milk. A healthy immune system neutralizes viruses and keeps your body healthy. When your immune system is weakened, the virus reappears - damaging your eyes, digestive system, lungs, or other organs.

Candidiasis. Candidiasis is a common HIV-related infection. It causes swelling and a thick white coating on the mucous membranes of your mouth, tongue, or vagina.

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Cryptococcal meningitis. Inflammation of the lining of the brain is the swelling of the membrane and fluid around the brain and spinal cord (meninges). Cryptococcal meningitis is a common central nervous system infection associated with HIV, which is caused by fungi found in soil.

Toxoplasmosis. It is most likely caused by a deadly infection called Toxoplasma gondii, a parasite that is mainly spread by cats. Infected cats ingest the parasites in their feces and then the parasites can spread to other animals and humans.

Cryptosporidiosis. The infection is usually caused by intestinal parasites found in animals. You become infected with cryptosporidiosis when you consume contaminated food or water. The parasite grows in your intestine and bile ducts, causing severe, severe diarrhea in people with AIDS.

Common Cancers for HIV/AIDS

Kaposi's sarcoma. Tumors on the walls of blood vessels, this cancer are rare in HIV-infected people, but more common in HIV-positive people. Kaposi's sarcoma usually appears as pink, red, or purple lesions on the skin and face. In people with darker skin, the lesions may appear dark brown or black in color. Kaposi's sarcoma can also affect the digestive system and internal organs, including the lungs.

This type of cancer develops in your white blood cells and usually first appears in your lymph nodes. The most common initial symptom is painless swelling of the lymph nodes in your neck, armpit, or lumbar region.

Other complications

Westing syndrome. Aggressive treatments have reduced the number of cases of Westing syndrome, but it still affects many people with AIDS. It is defined as a loss of at least 10 percent of body weight, often with diarrhea, severe weakness, and fever.

Neurological complications. Although AIDS does not infect neurons, it can cause neurological symptoms such as confusion, amnesia, depression, anxiety, and difficulty walking. One of the most common neurological complications is the AIDS dementia complex, which causes behavioral changes and impaired mental function.

Kidney disease. HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) is inflammation of the tiny filters in your kidneys that filter excess fluid and waste out of your bloodstream and pass them into your urine. Because of their genetic predisposition, black people are at a higher risk of getting HIVAN. In people diagnosed with HIV, antiretroviral therapy should be initiated regardless of CD4 count.

Tests and diagnosis

HIV is usually detected by testing your blood or saliva for antibodies to the virus. Lamentably, it sets aside effort for your body to foster these antibodies - as a rule as long as 12 weeks. A new type of test that tests for the HIV antigen, a protein produced by the virus shortly after an infection, may confirm the diagnosis soon after infection. Early diagnosis may ask people to take extra precautions to prevent spreading the virus to others.

Home test

To perform the test, you draw fluid from your upper and lower gums. If the test is positive, you will need to confirm the diagnosis with your doctor and discuss your treatment options. If the test is negative, it should be repeated every three months to confirm the results.

Trials for Taylor-Made Remedies

If you have been diagnosed with HIV/AIDS, various tests can help your doctor determine what stage you are in. These tests include:

CD4 Number CD4 cells are a type of white blood cell that is specifically targeted and destroyed by HIV. Even if you don't have any symptoms, when your CD4 count drops below 200, HIV infection progresses to AIDS.

viral load. This test estimates the measure of infection in your blood. Studies have shown that people with high viral loads generally perform worse than those with low viral loads.

drug resistance. This blood test will determine whether your HIV strain is resistant to certain anti-HIV drugs.

Test for complications

Your doctor may also order laboratory tests to diagnose other infections or complications, including:




sexually transmitted infections

liver or kidney damage

urinary tract infections

Treatment and medicine

There is no cure for HIV/AIDS, but a combination of several drugs may be used to control the virus. Each class of anti-HIV drugs protects against the virus in different ways. To prevent the spread of HIV, it is best to mix at least three of the two types of anti-HIV drugs. Categories of anti-HIV drugs include:

Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs). NNRTIs inactivate a protein needed by HIV to make its copies. Examples include efavirenz (Sustiva), etravirine (Intelligence), and nevirapine (Viramune).

Nucleoside or nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs). NRTIs are defective versions of these building blocks that HIV needs to make its own copy of. Examples include abacavir (Xiagen), and the combination drugs emtricitabine-tenofovir (Truvada), and lamivudine-zidovudine (Combivir).

Protease inhibitors (PIs). PIs inactivate the protein, another protein that HIV wants to replicate itself. Examples include atazanavir (Riyataz), darunavir (Prezista), fosamprenavir (Lexiva), and indinavir (Crixivan).

Infiltration or fusion inhibitors. These drugs block HIV from entering CD4 cells. Examples include enfuvirtide (Fuzeon) and maraviroc (Selzentry).

Integrated Blocker. These drugs work by inactivating integration, a protein that HIV uses to insert genetic material into CD4 cells. Examples include raltegravir (Isentas), elvitegravir (Vitekta), and raltegravir (TVK).

When to start treatment

Everyone with HIV should be given antiviral drugs, regardless of CD4 count. HIV therapy is especially important for the following conditions:

You have severe symptoms.

You have an opportunistic infection.