Wednesday, January 19, 2022

Anemia And Its Causes

Anemia occurs when the level of hemoglobin in your red blood cells (RBCs) decreases.

Hemoglobin is a protein in your RBCs that is responsible for supplying oxygen to your tissues. Iron deficiency anemia is the most common form of anemia and occurs when your body doesn't have enough of the mineral iron. 

Your body needs iron to make hemoglobin. When you don't have enough iron in your bloodstream, the rest of your body doesn't get enough oxygen.

Although this condition is common, many people are unaware that they have iron-deficiency anemia. Because it is possible to experience its symptoms for years without knowing it.

In women of childbearing age, the most common cause of iron deficiency anemia is anemia due to excessive menstruation or pregnancy. Iron deficiency anemia can also be caused by a poor diet or certain intestinal diseases that affect the body's ability to absorb iron. Doctors usually treat this condition with iron supplements or dietary changes.

Symptoms of iron deficiency anemia

Symptoms of iron deficiency anemia may be mild at first and you may not even be aware of it. According to the American Society of Hematology (ASH), most people do not know until they have regular blood tests.

Symptoms of moderate to severe iron deficiency anemia include:

general fatigue


pale skin

shortness of breath


a strange desire to eat something that is not dirty, icy, or dirty


cramping or crawling feeling

Tongue swelling or pain

cold hands and feet

fast or irregular heartbeat

severe nails


Iron deficiency due to anemia

Insufficient amount of iron

Eating too little iron over a long period of time can lead to iron deficiency in your body. Foods such as meat, eggs, and some green leafy vegetables are high in iron. Because iron is needed during rapid growth and development, pregnant women and young children may need iron in their diet.

Pregnancy or anemia due to menstruation

The most common causes of iron deficiency anemia in women of childbearing age are excessive menstrual bleeding and bleeding during labor.

Internal bleeding

Certain medical conditions can cause internal bleeding, leading to iron deficiency anemia. Examples include stomach ulcers, colon or intestinal polyps, or colon cancer. Regular use of painkillers like aspirin can also lead to stomach bleeding.

Inability to absorb iron

Certain disorders or surgeries affecting the intestines can interfere with your body's ability to absorb iron. Even if you get enough iron in your diet, bowel surgery like celiac disease or gastric bypass can limit the amount of iron in your body.

To risk

Anemia is a common condition and can affect men and women of any age and any ethnic group. Some people may be at a higher risk of developing iron-deficiency anemia than others, including:

Women of childbearing age

pregnant woman

poor food people

who bleed frequently

Infants and young children, especially those born prematurely or experiencing developmental play

Vegetarians who do not consume iron-rich foods other than meat

If you're at risk for iron deficiency anemia, talk to your doctor to find out whether blood tests or dietary changes may be helpful.

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How is it diagnosed?

whole blood cell (CBC) test

A complete blood count (CBC) is usually the first test a doctor uses. The CBC measures the levels of all components in the blood, including:

Red blood cell (RBC)

White blood cells (WBC)




The CBC provides information about your blood that helps diagnose iron-deficiency anemia. This information includes:

Hematocrit level, which is the percentage of blood produced by RBCs

Hemoglobin level

The size of your RBCs

The normal hematocrit is 34.9 to 44.5 percent for adult women and 38.8 to 50 percent for adult men. Normal hemoglobin is 12.0 to 15.5 g/dL for an adult female and 13.5 to 17.5 g/dL for an adult male.

Iron deficiency anemia results in low hematocrit and hemoglobin levels. In addition, RBCs are usually smaller in size than normal.

The CBC exam is often taken as part of a routine physical exam. It is a good indicator of a person's overall health. This can be done regularly before surgery. This test is useful for diagnosing this type of anemia because people with iron deficiency do not understand it.

Other tests

Anemia can usually be confirmed by a CBC test. Your doctor may order additional blood tests to help determine the severity and treatment of your anemia. They may examine your blood under a microscope. These blood tests include the following.

Iron level in your blood

Size and color of your RBCs (RBCs turn yellow due to lack of iron)

Your ferritin level

Your Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC)

Ferritin is a protein that assists your body with putting away iron. Low levels of ferritin indicate low iron storage. The TIBC test is used to determine the amount of iron-bearing transferrin. Transferrin is a protein that contains iron.

Test for internal bleeding

If your doctor is concerned that you may be suffering from anemia due to internal bleeding, additional tests may be needed. One of the tests you need to do to detect blood in your stool is the stool magic test. Blood in your stool can indicate bleeding in your intestines.

Your doctor may also perform an endoscopy, where they use a small camera on a flexible tube to view the lining of your gastrointestinal tract. The EGD test, or upper endoscopy, allows doctors to examine the lining of the esophagus, stomach, and small intestine. Colonoscopy, or lower endoscopy, allows doctors to examine the lining of the colon, which is the lower part of the large intestine. These tests can help identify the source of gastrointestinal bleeding.

Test for menstrual bleeding

Women are more likely to become anemic because of iron deficiency due to pregnancy, significant menstrual bleeding and uterine fibroids.

Excessive menstrual bleeding occurs when a woman bleeds for longer or longer than a woman normally does. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, normal menstrual bleeding lasts 4 to 5 days and the amount of blood is 2 to 3 tablespoons. Women with excessive bleeding usually have bleeding for more than seven days and twice as much as normal.

According to the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, about 20 percent of women have anemia during childbirth. Pregnant women are more likely to suffer from iron deficiency anemia as they need more blood to support their growing babies.

An abdominal ultrasound can help doctors determine the source of excessive bleeding during a woman's period, such as fibroids. Unlike iron-deficiency anemia, uterine fibroids usually do not show any symptoms. This occurs when a muscle tumor grows in the uterus. Although they are usually not cancerous, they can cause excessive bleeding during menstruation, leading to iron deficiency anemia.

Health complications of iron deficiency anemia

Iron deficiency anemia is mild and does not cause complications in most cases. It is usually easy to rectify the situation. However, if left untreated, anemia or iron deficiency can lead to other health problems. This includes:

Fast or irregular heartbeat

When you have anemia, your heart has to pump more blood to absorb less oxygen. It can cause irregular heartbeat. In serious cases, it can prompt cardiovascular breakdown or an amplified heart.

Pregnancy complications

In severe cases of iron deficiency, the baby may be premature or underweight. To keep this from occurring, most pregnant ladies accept iron enhancements as a component of their pre-birth care.

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Delayed development in newborns and children

Growth and developmental delays may occur in children and infants with severe iron deficiency. They may also be at higher risk of infection.

Treatment options

Iron supplement

Iron tablets can assist with reestablishing iron levels in your body. If possible, you should take iron tablets on an empty stomach so that the body can better absorb them. If they are bothering you, you can take them with you. You will need to take the supplement for several months. Iron supplements can cause constipation or black stools.


A diet consisting of the following foods may help treat or prevent iron deficiency:

Red meat

Dark green, spinach

Dry fruits

The wood

Iron safe cereals

In addition, vitamin C helps your body absorb iron. If you are taking iron pills, your doctor may recommend pills such as a glass of orange juice or citrus fruit as a source of vitamin C.

Treating the root cause of bleeding

If there is excessive bleeding, iron supplementation will not help. Doctors may prescribe birth control pills for people with heavy periods. It can reduce menstrual bleeding every month. In the most severe cases, blood transfusions can quickly replace iron and anemia.


Iron deficiency anemia can be prevented by eating foods rich in iron and vitamin C. Mothers should give their baby breast milk or iron-fortified infant formula.

Iron-rich foods include:

Meat, such as mutton, pork, chicken, and beef

Pumpkin and Squash Seeds

spinach, such as spinach

Raisins and other dried fruits


Seafood, such as clams, sardines, prawns, and oysters

Iron-protected dry and instant cereals

Foods rich in vitamin C include:

Fruits such as oranges, grapes, strawberries, kiwi, guava, papaya, pineapple, watermelon, and mango

brock Olek

red and green capsicum

brussel sprout




Tuesday, January 11, 2022

What Is Multiple Myeloma?

Multiple myeloma is cancer that develops in a type of white blood cell called a plasma cell.

Plasma cells help you fight infection by detecting germs and making antibodies that attack them. Multiple myeloma causes cancer cells to collect in the bone marrow, where they coalesce into healthy blood cells. 

Instead of making useful antibodies, cancer cells make abnormal proteins that can lead to complications. For people who have no symptoms or signs, treatment of multiple myeloma is not always necessary. 

There are many treatments available to help people with multiple myeloma who need treatment.


It is not clear why myeloma occurs.

Doctors know that myeloma arises from abnormal plasma cells in your bone marrow -- the soft, blood-producing tissue that fills most of your bone marrow. Abnormal cells grow rapidly.

Because cancer cells do not mature and then die like normal cells, they clump together, eventually producing healthy cells that are immune. in the bone marrow, myeloma cells aggregate solid white platelets and red platelets, prompting weakness and powerlessness to battle contamination.


Myeloma cells try to make antibodies like healthy plasma cells, but myeloma cells produce abnormal antibodies that the body cannot use. Instead, the body produces abnormal antibodies (monoclonal protein or M protein) and causes problems such as kidney damage. Cancer cells can injure bones, increasing the risk of bone fractures.

In the United States, about 3 percent of people over the age of 50 have access to MGUS. Every year, around 1% of individuals with MGUS foster different myeloma or related disease.

MGUS, similar to different myeloma, is described by the presence of an M protein in your blood - - which is delivered by strange plasma cells. However, MGUS has low levels of M protein and does not cause any harm to the body.


Signs and symptoms of multiple myeloma can vary and none may be present at the onset of the disease.

At the point when signs and manifestations do happen, they might include:

bone pain, especially in your spine or chest

to feel sick


anorexia nervosa

mental confusion or confusion


frequent infections

weight loss

weakness or numbness in your legs

feel very thirsty

to risk

Factors that increment the danger of numerous myeloma include:

As you get older, your risk of developing multiple myeloma increases, with most people diagnosed in their mid-60s.

Men are more likely to get this disease than men.

Black caste. Black people are almost twice as likely to develop multiple myeloma than white people.

Family history of multiple myeloma. If a sibling or parent has had multiple myeloma, you are at increased risk for the disease.

Personal history of MGUS monoclonal gammopathy In the United States, 1 percent of people with MGUS develop multiple myeloma each year.

Complications of multiple myeloma include:

Frequent infections. Myeloma cells destroy your body's ability to fight infection.

Bone problem. Multiple myeloma can also affect your bones, causing bone pain, osteoporosis, and bone fractures.

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Decreased kidney function. Multiple myeloma can lead to kidney failure and problems with kidney function. High levels of calcium in the blood associated with bone loss can interfere with your kidneys' ability to filter waste from your blood. Proteins produced by myeloma cells can cause similar problems.

Decreased number of red blood cells (anemia). Since myeloma cells are larger than normal blood cells, multiple myeloma can cause anemia and other blood problems.


In some cases, your doctor may mistakenly diagnose multiple myeloma when you have a blood test for another condition. In different cases, your PCP might presume various myeloma dependent on your signs and indications.

Tests and methods used to diagnose multiple myeloma:

blood test. Laboratory analysis of your blood may reveal the M protein produced by myeloma cells. One more unusual protein created by myeloma cells - - called beta-2-microglobulin - - might be found in your blood and let your PCP know how forceful your myeloma is. 

Likewise, a blood test to check your kidney work, platelet counts, calcium levels, and uric corrosive levels might show your PCP's analysis, urine test. Your urine analysis may show M protein, which when found in the urine is called Benz Jones protein.

Check your bone marrow. Your doctor may take a sample of bone marrow for laboratory testing. The sample is collected with a long needle inserted in bone marrow aspiration and biopsy.

Samples of myeloma cells are examined in a laboratory. Exceptional tests, for example, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), can examine myeloma cells to comprehend their hereditary anomalies.

There are also tests to measure the rate of myeloma cell division.

imaging test. Imaging tests may be recommended to rule out bone problems associated with multiple myeloma. Tests may include X-rays, MRI, CT, or positron emission tomography (PET).

Set a stage and risk limits

If tests show that you have multiple myeloma, your doctor will use information gathered from diagnostic tests to classify your disease as stage I, stage II, or stage III. Stage I represents a less aggressive disease and Stage III represents an aggressive disease that can affect bones, kidneys, and other organs.

Your multiple myeloma may also be assigned a risk category reflecting the severity of your disease.

Your various myeloma stage and hazard classifications assist your PCP with understanding your forecast and your treatment choices.


Assuming that you truly do encounter manifestations, treatment can assist with decreasing torment, control confusions of the illness, settle your condition, and diminish the danger of fostering various myeloma.

If you have multiple myeloma but no symptoms (also called smoldering multiple myeloma), you may not need treatment. However, your doctor will monitor your condition regularly to see if the disease is progressing. This may include periodic blood and urine tests.

If you notice any signs and symptoms or develop multiple myeloma, you and your doctor may decide to start treatment.

Standard treatment options include:

targeted therapy. Targeted drug treatment focuses on specific lesions in cancer cells that allow them to survive. Bortezomib (Velcade), carfilzomib (Kyprolis) and Xiaomi (Ninlaro) are targeted drugs that block the action of substances that break down proteins in myeloma cells. This action destroys the myeloma cells. Targeted therapy drugs can be given intramuscularly into your arm or in pill form.

Other targeted therapies include monoclonal antibody drugs that bind to specific proteins in myeloma cells, resulting in their death.

biological medicine. Biologic therapy drugs use your body's immune system to fight myeloma cells. Medicines such as thalidomide (Thalidomide), lenalidomide (Revlimid), and pomalidomide (Pomalyst) detect cancer cells and increase the number of immune cells that attack them. These medicines are usually taken in pill form.

Chemotherapy. Chemotherapy drugs destroy fast-growing cells, including myeloma cells. Chemotherapy drugs can be given through a blood vessel in your arm or can be taken as a pill. High dosages of chemotherapy drugs are utilized before a bone marrow relocate.


Corticosteroids such as prednisone and dexamethasone alter the body's immune system to control inflammation. They are also active against myeloma cells. Corticosteroids can be taken as a pill or given through a blood vessel in your arm.

bone marrow transplantation. A bone marrow transplant also called a stem cell transplant, is a procedure that replaces healthy bone marrow with diseased ones.

Before a bone marrow relocates, blood-framing immature microorganisms are gathered from your blood.

 Then you get high doses of chemotherapy to destroy your diseased bone marrow. Your stem cells then enter your body, where they reach your bones and begin to regenerate your bone marrow.

radiation therapy. These treatments use energy rays such as X-rays and protons to damage myeloma cells and stop their growth. Radiation therapy may be used to rapidly shrink myeloma cells in a specific area - for example, when abnormal plasma cells come together to form a tumor (plasmacytoma) that causes pain or bone loss Is.

If you are considered a candidate for a bone marrow transplant, your first aid may include treatments such as targeted therapy, biologic therapy, corticosteroids, and sometimes chemotherapy.

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After a few months of treatment, your stem cells can be collected. You may have a bone marrow transplant soon after your cells are collected, or the transplant may be delayed. Now and again, specialists suggest two bone marrow transfers for individuals with various myeloma.

After your bone marrow transplant, you are more likely to receive targeted therapy or biologic therapy as a maintenance treatment to prevent the recurrence of myeloma.

Treatment of complications

Multiple myeloma can cause many complications, you may also need treatment for that particular condition. for example:

Bone pain medications, radiation therapy, and surgery can help control bone pain.

Kidney complications. People with severe kidney damage may need dialysis.

Infection. Your doctor may recommend specific vaccines to prevent infections such as the flu and pneumonia.

bone loss. Your doctor may prescribe medicines called bisphosphonates to prevent bone loss, such as pamidronate (Iredia) or zoledronic acid (Zometa).

Anemia If you have persistent anemia, your doctor may prescribe medicine to increase your red blood cell count.

DISCLAIMER: Tips and suggestions mentioned in the article are for general information purpose only and should not be construed as professional medical advice. Always consult your doctor before starting any kind of program or making any changes to your diet.

Tuesday, January 4, 2022


Lymphoma is cancer that begins in the immune-fighting cells of the immune system, called lymphocytes. 

These cells are found in the lymph hubs, spleen, thymus, bone marrow, and different pieces of the body. At the point when you have lymphoma, lymphocytes change and outgrow control.

There are two main types of lymphoma:

Non-Hodgkin: This type is found in most people with lymphoma.



Non-Hodgkins and Hodgkins lymphoma affect different types of lymphocytes. Each kind of lymphoma develops at an alternate rate and reacts distinctively to a treatment.

Although lymphoma is cancer, it is curable. In many cases, this can be corrected. Your doctor can help you find the right treatment for your disease.

Lymphoma is different from leukemia. Each of these cancers starts in different types of cells.

The fight against lymphoma begins in lymphocytes. Leukemia begins in the blood-forming cells within the bones. Lymphoma is not like lymphedema, which is an accumulation of fluid under the skin when lymph nodes are damaged due to lymphoma.

In most cases, scientists do not know the cause of lymphoma. You are bound to have this on the off chance that you are 60 years of age or older men are, Your immune system has been weakened by HIV/AIDS, an organ transplant, or if you were born with a disease.

Immune system diseases such as arthritis, Sjogren's syndrome, lupus, or celiac disease. Infections like Epstein-Barr, hepatitis C, human T cell leukemia/lymphoma (HTLV-1), or human herpes infection 8 (HHV8).

Have a close relative with lymphoma

exposure to benzene or chemicals that kill insects and mites

cancer is treated with radiation


symptoms of lymphoma

Warning signs that you may have lymphoma are:


shortness of breath


night sweats

stomach ache


weight loss


Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma - Treatment

Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is usually treated with anticancer drugs or radiotherapy, although some people do not require treatment at this time.

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Treatment options:


High dose chemotherapy


Monoclonal antibody therapy

Steroid medicine


Chemotherapy is a widely used treatment for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, which uses drugs to kill cancer cells. It can be used manually with biotherapy and/or radiotherapy.

If the doctor thinks your cancer may be cured, you will usually be given chemotherapy directly through a drip (intravenous chemotherapy). If no treatment is possible, you will only need to take chemotherapy pills to relieve your symptoms.

If you are at risk for brain cancer, chemotherapy may be injected directly into the cerebrospinal fluid surrounding your spinal cord.

Chemotherapy is usually given on an outpatient basis for a few months, which means you do not need to stay in the hospital overnight. Notwithstanding, there might be times when your manifestations or symptoms of treatment might be especially serious and you might have to remain in the emergency clinic for a more drawn-out period of time.

Chemotherapy can have many side effects, the most important of which is potential damage to your bone marrow. It can interfere with the formation of healthy blood cells and cause the following problems:


Difficulty breathing

Increased susceptibility to infection

Bleeding and blisters are easy

Other possible side effects of chemotherapy include:

Nausea and vomiting


Anorexia nervosa

Mouth ulcers


Red rash on skin

Hair fall

Temporary infertility

High dose chemotherapy

In the event that non-Hodgkin's lymphoma doesn't seek better with beginning treatment (known as "stubborn" lymphoma), you might have a more grounded portion course of chemotherapy.

Be that as it may, this exceptional chemotherapy obliterates your bone marrow, creating the issues portrayed previously.

You will need a stem cell or bone marrow transplant to replace the damaged bone marrow.


Radiotherapy is utilized to treat beginning phase non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, where malignant growth stays in just a single space of ​​the body.

Treatments are usually given in short daily sessions, Monday through Friday, over a few weeks. You should not be in the hospital during the appointment.

Radiotherapy itself is easy, yet it can have some critical incidental effects. It depends on which part of your body is being treated. For example, throat treatments can cause a sore throat, while scalp treatments can cause hair loss.

Other common side effects include:

Pain and red skin in the treated area


Nausea and vomiting

Dry mouth

Anorexia nervosa

Hair fall

Most side effects are temporary, but the treatment involves the risk of long-term problems with infertility and permanent blackheads.

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Monoclonal antibody therapy

For certain kinds of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, you might have a medication called a monoclonal immunizer.

These drugs attach themselves to the surface of cancer cells and stimulate the immune system to attack and kill the cells. They are often treated with chemotherapy to make them more effective.

For certain kinds of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, you can proceed with customary monoclonal immune response treatment for as long as two years later introductory treatment with chemotherapy. This can reduce the risk of cancer recurrence in the future.

Rituximab is one of the major monoclonal antibody drugs used to treat non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. This medicine is given directly into your vein over a few hours.

Side effects of rituximab may include:

flu-like symptoms, such as headache, fever, and chills


To feel sick


Steroid medicine

Steroid drugs are commonly used to treat non-Hodgkin's lymphoma along with chemotherapy. This is because studies have shown that steroid use makes chemotherapy more effective.

Steroid medicines are usually given as pills, usually during your chemotherapy. A short course of steroids, lasting no more than a few months, is recommended, as this limits the number of side effects you can experience.

Common side effects of short-term steroid use include:

Increased appetite, which can lead to weight gain


Sleep problems

Feel the excitement

On rare occasions, you may need to take steroids for a long time. Side effects of long-term steroid use include weight gain and swelling of the hands, feet, and eyelids.

DISCLAIMER: Tips and suggestions mentioned in the article are for general information purpose only and should not be construed as professional medical advice. Always consult your doctor before starting any kind of programme or making any changes to your diet.