Thursday, July 30, 2020

COMMUNICABLE DISEASES: Malaria

Malaria is a deadly mosquito blood disorder. Anopheles mosquito transmits it to humans
The parasites of the malaria-borne mosquito belong to the genus Plasmodium. More than 100 species of Plasmodium parasites can infect various species. Different types breed at different rates, at which rate the symptoms increase and the severity of the disease changes.
Five types of Plasmodium parasites can infect humans. It occurs in different parts of the world. Some cause more severe types of malaria than others.
Once an infected mosquito bites a person, parasites multiply in the host's liver before infecting and destroying red blood cells.
In some places, early diagnosis can help in the treatment and control of malaria. However, some countries lack the resources to conduct effective screening.
There is currently no vaccine for use in the United States, although a vaccine is licensed in Europe.
In the early 1950s, progress in the treatment of malaria eradication in the United States was reversed. However, 1,500 to 2,000 cases still occur annually, most being those who have recently traveled to malaria-endemic areas.
 
Symptoms
Doctors divide the symptoms of malaria into two categories: incomplete and severe malaria.
Incomplete malaria
A doctor will make this diagnosis when symptoms are present but no symptoms that indicate a serious infection or dysfunction of vital organs.
This form can become severe malaria without treatment, or if the host has poor immunity or not.
Symptoms of unrelated malaria usually last for 6 to 10 hours and recur every other day.
Some strains of the parasite may have a long cycle or may have mixed symptoms.
Because those symptoms are similar to the flu, they can go undiagnosed or incorrectly in areas where there is less malaria.

In incomplete malaria, symptoms progress as follows: During the cold, heat, and sweating stages:
• feeling cold with shiver
• Fever, headache and vomiting
• Occasional seizures in young people with the disease
• Sweating after returning to normal temperature with fatigue
In areas where malaria is common, many people recognize the symptoms as malaria and are treated without going to a doctor.

Severe malaria
In severe malaria, clinical or laboratory findings show signs of significant organ dysfunction.
Symptoms of severe malaria include:
• fever and chills
• impaired consciousness
• pull or lie
• multiple seizures
• Breathing and breathlessness
• Signs of abnormal bleeding and anemia
• clinical jaundice and signs of significant organ dysfunction
Severe malaria can be fatal without treatment.
 
Treatment
The treatment is aimed at removing Plasmodium parasites from the bloodstream.
Those without symptoms can be treated for infections that reduce the risk of transmission of the disease to the surrounding population.
The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) for the treatment of incomplete malaria.

The Artemisinin plant is obtained from Artemisia annua, which is known as sweet worm. Rapidly decreases the concentration of Plasmodium parasites in the blood.
Practitioners often associate ACT with partner drugs. The aim of the act is to reduce the number of parasites during the first 3 days after infection, while companion drugs eliminate the rest.
Expanding access to ACT treatment worldwide has helped reduce the effects of malaria, but is more resistant to the effects of the disease act.
In areas where malaria is resistant to action, treatment should include an effective companion drug.
The WHO warns that artemisinin alternatives are unlikely to emerge within a few years.
 
Prevention
Bite prevention - Avoid mosquito bites by using insect repellent, covering your hands and feet and using mosquito nets. Check to see if you need to take your malaria prophylaxis pills - if you do, make sure you take the right antimalarial pills at the correct dose and end the course.
maleria

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